Soil Themes > Landslides
Landslides in Europe
Landslides and the EU Soil Thematic Strategy
European Landslide Susceptibility Map
European Landslide Expert Group
Landslide inventories in Europe
A landslide is the gravitational movement of a mass of rock, earth or debris down a slope. Landslides are usually classified on the basis of the material involved (rock, debris, earth, mud) and the type of movement (fall, topple, avalanche, slide, flow, spread). Thus, the generic term landslide also refers to mass movements such as rock falls, mudslides and debris flows. Volcanic mudflows and debris flows are also called lahars.
Shallow landslides usually involve only the soil layer and upper regolith zone, while deep-seated landslides additionally involve bedrock at higher depth. Landslide volume can vary from some tens of cubic metres to several cubic kilometres for giant landslides, while landslide speed may range from a few centimetres per year for slow-moving landslides to tens of kilometres per hour for fast, highly destructive landslides. According to the state of activity or movement, existing landslides can be classified as active, dormant (potentially reactivated) or inactive (often relict or fossil).
Landslides are generally induced when the shear stress on the slope material exceeds the material’s shear strength. The occurrence and reactivation of landslides is conditioned by a number of terrain and geo-environmental factors related to bedrock and soil properties, weathering conditions, jointing and structure, slope morphology, land cover/use, surface and ground water flow, etc.
Landslides can be triggered by natural physical processes such as heavy or prolonged rainfall, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, rapid snow melt, slope undercutting by rivers or sea waves and permafrost thawing. They can also be triggered by man-made activities such as slope excavation and loading (e.g. road and buildings construction, open-pit mining and quarrying), land use changes (e.g. deforestation), rapid reservoir drawdown, irrigation, blasting vibrations, water leakage from utilities, etc, or by any combination of natural and/or man-induced processes.
Landslide in Veneto, Italy
Landslides are a major hazard in most mountainous and hilly regions as well as in steep river banks and coastlines. Their impact depends largely on their size and speed, the elements at risk in their path and the vulnerability of these elements. Every year landslides cause fatalities and result in large damage to infrastructure (roads, railways, pipelines, artificial reservoirs, etc.) and property (buildings, agricultural land, etc.).
Large landslides in mountainous areas can result in landslide dams blocking river courses. These natural dams cause valley inundation upstream and can be subsequently breached by lake water pressure, hence generating deadly flash floods or debris flows downstream. Submarine and large coastal cliff landslides can trigger tsunami, as can landslides in lake and reservoir shores.
Landslides can also affect mine waste tips and tailings dams and landfills, causing fatalities and contaminating soils and surface and ground water.
In areas affected by landslides, these are a major source of soil erosion and sediment yield to valleys and rivers.
However, most statistics on natural disasters underestimate the impacts from landslides as they often do not separate them from other triggering or concurrent natural hazards such as storms, floods or earthquakes.
Landslides occur in many different geological and environmental settings across Europe. For example, large rockfalls, rockslides, rock avalanches and debris flows dominate in the Alps and steep slopes in other mountain ranges; slides and flows abound in flysch belts of Slovakia, Czech Republic, Poland, Slovenia, Italy, Spain, France and other countries; slides of various types are numerous on cliffs and steep slopes in Southern and Eastern England’s coast and Bulgaria’s Northern Black Sea coast; shallow slides and mudflows occur on Ireland’s peat slopes; slides and lateral spreads do as well on gentle slopes in quick clays in Sweden and Norway; flows and slides also typically occur in clay-rich sediments and sedimentary sequences in Tertiary basins as well as on river banks, etc.
Intense and/or long-lasting rainfall represents the most frequent trigger of landslides in continental Europe. However, earthquakes are also responsible for some large landslides. Human activities are also the cause of many slope failures in infrastructure and built-up areas.
Landslides are a major factor of landscape evolution in mountainous and hilly regions in Europe. In addition to causing extensive erosion and sediment yield in these regions, large landslides have been responsible for the creation of many lakes in the Alps and other mountain ranges by damming river valleys. Examples of this include the lakes of Santa Croce, Antrona (formed in 1642), Alleghe (formed in 1771) and Scanno in Italy, Eibsee and Obersee in Germany, Blindsee in Austria, Vallon in France (formed in 1943), Lacul Rosu in Romania (formed in 1837), and Poschiavo, Klöntal, Derborence (formed in 1749), Sils, Silvaplana, Oeschinen and Davos in Switzerland. Most landslide dams, however, have often formed temporary lakes that have later breached the dam causing catastrophic flash floods and debris flows. Today, hills in some alpine valley bottoms are remnants of large deposits from giant landslides (e.g. from prehistoric rock avalanches with volumes even in excess of 1 km3 such as Flims, Sierre and Tamins in Switzerland, Köfels, Fernpass and Tschirgant in Austria, etc.). Many landslide-dammed lakes have been progressively filled with sediments, thus also modifying the valley environment. Unfortunately, the hazard of river damming from landslides still exists in these regions: outstanding examples are those of La Clapičre and Séchilliene rockslides in the French Alps, whose potential movement acceleration threatens communities located far from the unstable slopes. On the other hand, landslides in steep coastal areas including cliffs accelerate erosion and subsequent cliff retreat by sea waves.
Giant subaerial landslides are not exclusive of the Alps. They have also occurred in prehistoric times in areas such as southern Crimea in Ukraine, Isle of Skye in UK, and especially in the Canary Islands, Spain. In the latter, a number of huge debris avalanches entered the ocean triggering tsunami. Evidence of large tsunami are also found in Scotland and other coastal areas bordering the Norwegian Sea, mainly attributed to the Storegga submarine megaslide (ca. 3,500 km3) off the west coast of Norway. In the Mediterranean, landslide-triggered tsunami have been observed dominantly in the Corinth Gulf, Greece, and the Aeolian Islands, Italy. Recent examples include the local tsunami caused by the collapse of the Nice airport embankment in 1979 and the small to moderate tsunami produced by a landslide on the Stromboli Island flank in 2002.
Nowadays, population growth and expansion into landslide-prone areas is raising landslide risk in Europe. In addition, an increase of landslides associated to extreme rainfall events is expected in the future due to climate change.
Major historic landslide disasters
There is a long record of landslide disasters in historical and recent times in Europe causing many fatalities and high economic losses. Major disasters include, among others, those of Goldau (1806), Elm (1881) and Gondo (2000) in Switzerland; Piuro (1618), Antronapiana (1642), Roccamontepiano (1765), Monte Antelao (1814, 1925), Vajont (nearly 2000 killed by reservoir wave caused by man-induced landslide in 1963) and, more recently, Valpola (1987), rainfall-triggered multi-landslide events in Piedmont region (1994), Sarno and Quindici (1998) and Messina (2009), and the train accident at Laces (2010), all in Italy; Granier (1248) and Plateau d’Assy (1970) in France; Felanitx (1844), Azagra (1874) and Granada province (earthquake-triggered multi-landslide event, 1884) in Spain; Mount Dobratsch (1348) in Austria; Getĺ (1918) and Tuve (1977) in Sweden; Verdalen (1893) and landslide-triggered local tsunami at Loen (1905, 1936) and Tafjord (1934)in Norway.
In addition, landslides occurring in mine waste tips and tailings dams have been the origin of the catastrophes of Sgorigrad, Bulgaria (1966), Aberfan (1966) in Wales, UK, and Stava (1985) in Trento, Italy.
Lessons learnt from the management of a number of landslide disasters occurred in Europe in the 1990s and early 2000s are reported here
Landslides are one of the soil threats considered in the EU Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection and the related Proposal for a Soil Framework Directive. The Strategy calls for actions and means for the protection and sustainable use of soils as a physical platform on which human activities are developed. The proposed Directive, in turn, will be the Strategy implementing tool. This will mainly require to identify landslide and other soil threat risk areas in the European Union, set risk reduction targets for those areas and establish programmes of measures by Member States to achieve them.
On 13 February 2012 the European Commission published the report The implementation of the Soil Thematic Strategy and ongoing activities (COM(2012) 46). The report provides an overview of the actions undertaken by the Commission to implement the four pillars of the Strategy, namely awareness raising, research, integration, and legislation. It also presents current and future challenges to ensure soil protection. The report includes a preliminary landslide susceptibility map of the EU and neighbouring countries produced by the European Landslide Expert Group coordinated by JRC.
The JRC provides scientific and technical support to the European Commission Services for the implementation of the EU Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection, both through its own work activities and in collaboration with national research organizations, mapping agencies and academia. Our main activities and expertise include harmonisation of methods for landslide mapping and zoning in Europe (inventory, susceptibility, hazard and risk) at various scales, development of satellite, airborne and ground-based remote sensing techniques for landslide mapping and long term monitoring, analysis of lessons learnt from management of past landslide disasters, and spatial database management. Find more information here.
Collaborative activities are carried out in various frameworks:
- European Landslide Expert Group. Founded and coordinated by JRC, this group includes experts from a number of national geological surveys, national research institutes, and universities. The group is currently developing models for landslide susceptibility assessment and mapping at European and national scales (see publications).
- International Consortium on Landslides (ICL),
an international non-governmental scientific organisation supported by UNESCO, UN/ISDR, FAO, WMO and intergovernmental programmes. ICL promotes and coordinates collaborative research and expertise, as well as capacity building, on landslide risk reduction.
JRC participates in ICL's International Programme on Landslides (IPL) and other activities such as the organisation of World Landslide Forums. At the Second World Landslide Forum, held at FAO headquarters, Rome, 3-9 October 2011, JRC scientists convened session L04: Landslide inventory and susceptibility and hazard zoning, the largest session of the Forum.
JRC’s Institute of Environment and Sustainability (IES) has been awarded the status of World Centre of Excellence on Landslide Disaster Reduction for the period 2011-2014 in the field of research on landslide risk management harmonisation in support to European Union policy making.
- EU 7th Framework Programme project SAFELAND (Living with landslide risk in Europe: Assessment, effects of global change, and risk management strategies). JRC has also participated in previous EU landslide-related research projects including GALAHAD, MUSCL, RUNOUT, ENVASSO and RAMSOIL.
- European Centre on Geomorphological Hazards (CERG) , a specialized research network of the Council of Europe’s EUR-OPA Major Hazards Agreement co-operation platform. CERG promotes international scientific cooperation and training on prevention of geomorphological and geohydrological hazards and risks, especially landslides, gravitational flows and floods.
European Landslide Susceptibility Map (ELSUS1000) v1
ELSUS1000 version 1 shows levels of spatial probability of generic landslide occurrence at continental scale. It covers most of the European Union and several neighbouring countries. Basically, the map has been produced by regionalizing the study area based on elevation and climatic conditions, followed by spatial multi-criteria evaluation modelling using pan-European slope gradient, soil parent material and land cover spatial datasets as the main landslide conditioning factors. In addition, the location of over 100,000 landslides across Europe, provided by various national organizations or collected by the authors, has been used for model calibration and validation. Additional information is provided in the references below and the metadata.
The map has been produced jointly by the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR, Hannover, Germany), the Joint Research Centre (JRC, Ispra, Italy), the Institute of Physics of the Globe (CNRS-EOST, Strasbourg, France), and the Research Institute for Hydrogeological Protection (CNR-IRPI, Perugia, Italy), as part of the work of the European Landslide Expert Group, with contributions from other members of the Group.
The map is available to download together with ancillary spatial datasets used for landslide susceptibility modelling, or produced for referencing to administrative regions and for evaluation of the confidence level of the classified landslide susceptibility.
Title: Classified European Landslide Susceptibility Map (ELSUS1000) v1
Description: The map shows landslide susceptibility levels at continental scale, derived from heuristic-statistical modelling of main landslide conditioning factors using also landslide location data
Spatial coverage: 26 member states of the European Union for which all landslide conditioning factor datasets used for susceptibility modelling in ELSUS1000 v1 are available (all member states except Cyprus) and Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, FYR Macedonia, Montenegro, Norway, Serbia and Switzerland
Pixel size: 1 km
Format: Raster (ESRI GRID)
Projection: ETRS89 Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area
Ancillary datasets: Confidence Level map of ELSUS1000 v1; NUTS 3-aggregated map of ELSUS1000 v1; and the Climato-Physiographic Regions, Classified Slope Gradient, Classified Soil Parent Material and Classified Land Cover maps used for landslide susceptibility assessment
Release date: 15 February 2013
- Günther, A., Reichenbach, P., Malet, J.-P., Van Den Eeckhaut, M., Hervás, J., Dashwood, C., Guzzetti, F, in press. Tier-based approaches for landslide susceptibility assessment in Europe. Landslides, doi: 10.1007/s10346-012-0349-1.
- Panagos P., Van Liedekerke M., Jones A., Montanarella L., 2012. European Soil Data Centre: Response to European policy support and public data requirements. Land Use Policy, 29, 329-338. doi:10.1016/j.landusepol.2011.07.003
- Günther, A., Van Den Eeckhaut, M., Malet, J.-P., Reichenbach, P., Hervás, J. 2013. European Landslide Susceptibility Map (ELSUS1000) Version 1 Methodology. Technical Note, 14.02.2013. European Soil Portal, http://eusoils.jrc.ec.europa.eu
To get access to the spatial datasets and associated metadata, please compile the online form; instructions on how to download the data will then follow.
- Günther, A., Van Den Eeckhaut, M., Malet, J.-P., Reichenbach, P., Hervás, J., 2013. The European landslide susceptibility map ELSUS 1000 Version 1. Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 15, EGU2013-10071.
- Van Den Eeckhaut, M., Hervás, J., 2012. Landslide inventories in Europe and policy recommendations for their interoperability and harmonisation - A JRC contribution to the EU-FP7 SafeLand project. JRC Report EU 25666 EN, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 202 pp.
- Bazin, S. and the SafeLand Team (Damiano, E., Picarelli, L., Cardellini, S., Malet, J.-P., Garbarino, E., Gozzi, A., Lovisolo, M., Baron, I., Jochum, B., Ottowitz, D., Supper, R., Kumelj, S., Bye, L.M., Eidsvig, U., Kalsnes, B., Lam, A., Lacasse, S., Nadim, F., Sparrevik, M., Vangelsten, B.V., Stumpf, A., Van Den Eeckhaut, M., Hervás, J., Leroi, E., Intrieri, E., Agliardi, F., Gili, J., Moya, J., Michoud, C., Derron, M.-H., Jaboyedoff, M., Blikra, L.H.), 2012. SafeLand guidelines for landslide monitoring and early warning systems in Europe - Design and required technology. Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 14, EGU2012-1347-2.
- Corominas, J., Mavrouli, O. and the Safeland Project Team (Santo, A., Di Crescenzo, G., Ulrich, T., Sedan Miegemolle, O., Malet, J.-P., Remaître, A., Narasimhan, H., Faber, M.H., Maftei, R., Filipciuc, C.T., Van Den Eeckhaut, M., Hervás, J., Smith, J., Winter, M., Tofani, V., Casagli, N., Crosta, G.B., Agliardi, F., Frattini, P., Cascini, L., Ferlisi, S.), 2012. Comparison of landslide hazard and risk assessment practices in Europe. Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 14, EGU2012-8557-1.
- Günther, A., Reichenbach, P., Malet, J.-P., Van Den Eeckhaut, M., Hervás, J., Dashwood, C., Guzzetti, F., in press. Tier-based approaches for landslide susceptibility assessment in Europe. Landslides, DOI: 10.1007/s10346-012-0349-1.
- Günther, A., Van Den Eeckhaut, M., Reichenbach, P., Hervás, J., Malet, J.-P., Foster, C., Guzzetti, F., in press. New developments in harmonized landslide susceptibility mapping over Europe in the framework of the European Soil Thematic Strategy. Proc. Second World Landslide Forum, 3-7 October 2011, Rome.
- Günther, A., Van Den Eeckhaut, M., Reichenbach, P., Hervás, J., Malet, J.-P., Guzzetti, F., 2011. Continental level landslide susceptibility assessment in the context of the European Union’s Soil Thematic Strategy. Abstract Proc. AGU Fall Meeting 2011, San Francisco, USA, 5-9 December 2011, NH11B-08.
- Hervás, J., in press. Landslide inventory. In: Bobrowsky, P. (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Natural Hazards. Springer, Heidelberg. ISBN 978-1-4020-4399-4.
- Hervás, J., Van Den Eeckhaut, M., 2012. Analysis of national and regional landslide inventories in Europe. Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 14, EGU2012-11244.
- Jaedicke, C., Nadim, F., Kalsnes, B., Sverdrup-Thygeson, K., Radermacher, C., Fischer, G.,. Hervás, J., Van Den Eeckhaut, M., 2012. Impacts of global change on landslide hazard and risk in Europe in 21st century. Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 14, EGU2012-7010.
- Jaedicke, C., Van Den Eeckhaut, M., Nadim, F., Hervás, J., Kalsnes, B., Smith, J.T., Tofani, V., Ciurean, R., Winter, M.G., 2011. Identification of landslide hazard and risk "hotspots" in Europe. Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 13, EGU2011-10398.
- Jones, A., Panagos, P., Barcelo, S., Bouraoui, F., Bosco, C., Dewitte, O., Gardi, C., Erhard, M., Hervás, J., Hiederer, R., Jeffery, S., Lükewille, A., Marmo, M., Montanarella, L., Olazábal, C., Petersen, J.-E., Penizek, V., Strassburger, T., Tóth, G., Van Den Eeckhaut, M., Van Liedekerke, M., Verheijen, F., Viestova, E., Yigini, Y., 2012. The State of Soil in Europe. JRC Reference Report EUR 25186 EN. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg. ISBN 978-92-79-22805-6, 71 pp.
- Malet, J.-P., Puissant, A., Alexandre, M., Mathieu.,A., Van Den Eeckhaut, M., Fressard, M., in press. Integrating spatial multi-criteria evaluation and expert knowledge for national-scale landslide susceptibility analysis: application to France. Proc. Second World Landslide Forum, 3-7 October 2011, Rome.
- Puissant, A., Van Den Eeckhaut, M., Kappes, M., Papathoma-Khoele, M., Keiler, M., Hervás, J., Malet, J.-P., in press. Index-oriented methodologies for landslide consequence analysis: an application to a mountain community in the French Alps. Proc. Second World Landslide Forum, 3-7 October 2011, Rome.
- Stumpf, A., Malet, J.-P., Kerle, N., Tofani, V., Segoni, S., Casagli, N., Michoud, C., Jaboyedoff, M., Fornaro, G., Peduto, D., Cascini, L., Baron, I., Supper, R., Oppikofer, T., L’Heureux, J.-S., Van Den Eeckhaut, M., Hervás, J., Moya, J., Raucoules, D., Carman, M., 2012. Guidelines for the selection of appropriate remote-sensing technologies for landslide detection, monitoring and rapid mapping: the experience of the SafeLand European Project. Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 14, EGU2012-6537-1.
- Van Den Eeckhaut, M., Hervás, J., 2012. State of the art of national landslide databases in Europe and their potential for assessing landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk. Geomorphology, 139-140: 545-558.
- Van Den Eeckhaut, M., Hervás, J., Jaedicke, C., Malet, J.-P., Montanarella, L., Nadim, F., 2012. Statistical modelling of Europe-wide landslide susceptibility using limited landslide inventory data. Landslides, 9: 357-369.
- Van Den Eeckhaut, M., Hervás, J., Montanarella, L., in press. Landslide databases in Europe: analysis and recommendations for interoperability and harmonisation. Proc. Second World Landslide Forum, 3-7 October 2011, Rome.
- Van Den Eeckhaut, M., Kerle, N. Hervás, J., 2011. Mapping vegetated landslides using LiDAR derivatives and object - oriented analysis. Ninth International Workshop on Remote Sensing for Disaster Response, 15-16 September 2011, Stanford, USA. 5 p.
- Van Den Eeckhaut, M., Kerle, N., Hervás, J., Supper, R., in press. Mapping of landslides under dense vegetation cover using object-oriented analysis and LiDAR derivatives. Proc. Second World Landslide Forum, 3-7 October 2011, Rome.
- Van Den Eeckhaut, M., Kerle, N., Poesen, J., Hervás, J., 2012. Object-oriented identification of forested landslides with derivatives of single pulse LiDAR data. Geomorphology, 173-174: 30-42.
- Van Den Eeckhaut, M., Kerle, N., Poesen, J., Hervás, J., 2012. Identification of vegetated landslides using only a LiDAR-based terrain model and derivatives in an object-oriented environment. Proc. 4th International Conference on Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis - GEOBIA 2012, 7-9 May 2012, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, pp. 211-216.
- Van Den Eeckhaut, M., Poesen, J., Gullentops, F., Vandekerckhove, L., Hervás, J., 2011. Regional mapping and characterisation of old landslides in hilly regions using LiDAR-based imagery in Southern Flanders. Quaternary Research, 75: 721-733.
- Van Den Eeckhaut, M., Poesen, J., Günther, A., Malet, J.P., Reichenbach, P., Guzzetti, F., Hervás, J., 2012. State-of-the-art and challenges of landslide susceptibility modelling at regional to continental scales. Proc. 32nd International Geographical Congress, 26-30 August 2012, Cologne, Germany, pp. 758.
- Van Den Eeckhaut, M., Poesen, J., Hervás, J., 2013. Mass-Movement Causes: Overloading. In: Shroder, J.F., Marston, R.A., Stoffel, M. (Eds.), Treatise on Geomorphology, Vol.7 Mountain and Hillslope Geomorphology. Academic Press, San Diego, USA, pp. 200-206.
- Vanmaercke, M., Kettner, A., Van Den Eeckhaut, M., Poesen, J., Govers, G., Mamaliga, A., Verstraeten, G., Radoane, M., Syvitski, J., 2012. Predicting sediment yield for catchments under pristine conditions: the role of tectonic activity. Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 14, EGU2012-1361.
- Vanmaercke, M., Poesen, J., Govers, G., Verstraeten, G., Kettner, A., Van Den Eeckhaut, M., 2012. Quantifying the effects of human impact on sediment yield for European catchments. Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 14, EGU2012-1363.
- Verheijen, F., Panagos, P., Mannschatz, T., Jones, J., Montanarella, L., Barceló, S., Bosco, C., Dewitte, O., Gardi, C., Hervás, J., Hiederer, R., Jeffery, S., Diafas, I., Yigini, Y., El Belrhiti, H., Petursdottir, T., Tóth, T., Van Den Eeckhaut, M., Van Liedekerke, M., Bampa, F., de Brogniez, D., Aksoy, E., in press. Chapter 3 - Soil Threats – Status and Monitoring, in: Dietrich, P. and Sauer, U. (Eds.), Methods and Technologies for Mapping of Soil Properties, Function and Threat Risks. Springer Verlag.
- Vranken, L., Van Turnhout, P., Van Den Eeckhaut, M., Vandekerckhove, L., Poesen, J., in press. Economic valuation of landslide damage in hilly regions: a case study from the Flemish Ardennes, Belgium. Proc. Second World Landslide Forum, 3-7 October 2011, Rome.
- Vranken, L., Van Turnhout, P., Van Den Eeckhaut, M., Vandekerckhove, L., Vantilt, G., Poesen, J., 2012. Assessing the Economic Cost of Landslide Damage in Low-Relief Regions: Case Study Evidence from the Flemish Ardennes (Belgium). Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 14, EGU2012-8099.
- Barredo, J.I., Benavides, A., Hervás, J., van Westen, C.J., 2000. Comparing heuristic landslide hazard assessment techniques using GIS in the Tirajana basin, Gran Canaria Island, Spain. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 2: 9-23.
- Barredo, J.I., Hervás, J., Lomoschitz, A., Benavides, A., van Westen, C.J., 2000. Landslide hazard assessment using GIS and multicriteria evaluation techniques in the Tirajana basin, Gran Canaria Island. Proc. 5th EC GIS Workshop, Stresa, Italy, 28-30 June 1999. EUR 19018 EN, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, pp. 355-365.
- Colombo, A.G., Hervás, J., Vetere Arellano, A.L., 2002. Guidelines on Flash Flood Prevention and Mitigation. JRC Report EUR 20386 EN, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 64 pp.
- Dewitte, O., Chung, C.-J., Cornet, Y., Daoudi, M., Demoulin, A., 2010. Combining spatial data in landslide reactivation susceptibility mapping: A likelihood ratio-based approach in W Belgium. Geomorphology, 122: 153-166.
- Eyers, R., Moore, J.McM., Hervás, J., Liu, J.G., 1998. Integrated use of Landsat TM and SPOT panchromatic imagery for landslide mapping: case histories from Southeast Spain. In: Maund, J.G. and Eddleston, M. (Eds.), Geohazards in Engineering Geology. Geological Society, London, Engineering Geology Special Publications, Vol. 15, 133-140.
- Günther, A., Hervás, J., Reichenbach, P., Malet, J.-P., 2010. Progress in landslide susceptibility mapping over Europe using Tier-based approaches. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 12, EGU2010-15275.
- Günther, A., Reichenbach, P., Hervás, J., 2008. Approaches for Delineating Areas Susceptible to Landslides in the Framework of the European Soil Thematic Strategy. Proceedings of the First World Landslide Forum, Tokyo, 18-21 November 2008, pp. 235-238.
- Herrera, G., Ponce de León, D., Mulas, J., Llorente, M., Hervás, J., Noferini, L., Mecatti, D., Macaluso, G., Tamburini, A., Federici, P., 2007. Ground Based SAR and Terrestrial Laser Scanner data for the analysis of the Formigal landslide; the GALAHAD project test site in the Spanish Pyrenees. 7th Geomatics Week, Barcelona, Spain, 20-23 February 2007, CD-ROM, 2 pp.
- Herrera, G., Ponce de León, D., Mulas, J., Llorente, M., Hervás, J., Luzi, G., Mecatti, D., Noferini, L., Macaluso, G., Pieraccini, M., Tamburini, A., Federici, P., 2007. Landslide ground based remote sensing monitoring: Formigal case study (Huesca, Spain). Geophysical Research Abstracts, 9, EGU2007-A-07945.
- Hervás, J., Barredo, J.I., Lomoschitz, A., 2002. Elaboración de mapas de susceptibilidad de deslizamientos mediante GIS, teledetección y métodos de evaluación multicriterio. Aplicación a la depresión de Tirajana (Gran Canaria). In: Ayala-Carcedo, F.J. and Corominas, J. (Eds.), Mapas de susceptibilidad a los movimientos de ladera con técnicas GIS. IGME, Madrid, pp. 169-180.
- Hervás, J., Günther, A., Reichenbach, P., Malet, J.-P., Van Den Eeckhaut, M., 2010. Harmonised approaches for landslide susceptibility mapping in Europe. In: Malet, J.-P., Glade, T., Casagli, N. (Eds.), Proc. Int. Conference Mountain Risks: Bringing Science to Society, Florence, Italy, 24-26 November 2010. CERG Editions, Strasbourg, pp. 501-505.
- Hervás, J. (Ed.), 2003. Lessons Learnt from Landslide Disasters in Europe. EUR 20558 EN, European Commission, Ispra, Italy, 91 p.
- Hervás, J. (ed.), 2003. Recommendations to deal with Snow Avalanches in Europe. EUR 20839 EN, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 81 pp.
- Hervás, J. (Ed.), 2007. Guidelines for Mapping Areas at Risk of Landslides in Europe. Proc. Experts Meeting, JRC, Ispra, Italy, 23-24 October 2007. JRC Report EUR 23093 EN, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 53 pp.
- Hervás, J., Barredo, J.I., 2001. Evaluación de la susceptibilidad de deslizamientos mediante el uso conjunto de GIS, teledetección y métodos de evaluación multicriterio. Aplicación al Barranco de Tirajana (Gran Canaria). Proc. V Simposio Nacional sobre Taludes y Laderas Inestables. Madrid, 27-30 November 2001. CEDEX, Ministerio de Fomento, Madrid, pp. 305-316.
- Hervás, J., 2000. Optical remote sensing for landslide investigations. Proc. Workshop on Advanced Techniques for the Assessment of Natural Hazards in Mountain Areas, Igls, Austria, 5-7 June 2000, pp. 97
- Hervás, J., Barredo, J.I., Rosin, P.L., Pasuto, A., Mantovani, F., Silvano, S., 2003. Monitoring landslides from optical remotely sensed imagery: the case history of Tessina landslide, Italy. Geomorphology, 54: 63-75.
- Hervás, J., Bobrowsky, P., 2009. Mapping: Inventories, Susceptibility, Hazard and Risk. In: Sassa, K. and Canuti, P. (Eds.), Landslides - Disaster Risk Reduction. Springer, Berlin, ISBN 978-3-540-69966-8, pp. 321-349.
- Hervás, J., Günther, A., Reichenbach, P., Chacón, J., Pasuto, A., Malet, J.-P., Trigila. A., Hobbs, P., Maquaire, O., Tagliavini, F., Poyiadji, E., Guerrieri, L., Montanarella, L., 2007. Recommendations on a common approach for mapping areas at risk of landslides in Europe. In: Hervás, J. (Ed.), Guidelines for Mapping Areas at Risk of Landslides in Europe. Proc. Experts Meeting, Ispra, Italy, 23-24 October 2007. JRC Report EUR 23093 EN, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, pp. 45-49.
- Hervás, J., Günther, A., Reichenbach, P., Guzzetti, F., Chacón, J., Pasuto, A., Trigila, A., Malet, J.-P., Tagliavini, F., 2008. Towards a common approach for mapping areas susceptible to landslides in Europe. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 10, EGU2008-A-12200.
- Hervás, J., Montanarella, L., 2007. Main issues on landslide mapping harmonisation in EU Member States in the framework of European Commission soil policy. In: Hervás, J. (Ed.), Guidelines for Mapping Areas at Risk of Landslides in Europe. Proc. Experts Meeting, Ispra, Italy, 23-24 October 2007. JRC Report EUR 23093 EN, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, pp. 7-10.
- Hervás, J., Rosin, P.L., 1996. Landslide mapping by textural analysis of Daedalus ATM data. Proc. 11th Thematic Conference on Applied Geologic Remote Sensing, Las Vegas, Nevada, 27-29 February 1996. ERIM, Ann Arbor, Michigan, Vol. 2, pp. 394-402.
- Hervás, J., Rosin, P.L., 2001. Tratamiento digital de imágenes de teledetección en el espectro óptico para el reconocimiento y control de deslizamientos. Proc. V Simposio Nacional sobre Taludes y Laderas Inestables. Madrid, 27-30 November 2001. CEDEX, Ministerio de Fomento, Madrid, pp. 63-74.
- Jelinek, R., Hervás, J., Wood, M., 2007. Risk Mapping of Landslides in New Member States. JRC Scientific and Technical Reports EUR 22950 EN, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 34 pp.
- Jelínek, R., Wood, M., Hervás, J., 2007. Risk Mapping of Flood Hazards in New Member States. JRC Report EUR 22902 EN, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg. 37 pp.
- Jones, A. (Ed.), 2010. The European Environment: State and Outlook 2010 – Soil. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 44 pp.
- Krausmann, E., Christou, M., Scheer, S., Mara, S., Hervás, J., Delaval, M., 2010. NEDIES: A European Portal for the Generation and Dissemination of Lessons Learned from Disasters. In: Menoni, S. (ed.) Risks challenging publics, scientists and governments. Taylor and Francis Group, London, pp. 9-15.
- Krausmann, E., Delaval, M., Christou, M., Hervas, J., Ranguelov, B., Vollmer, G., 2005. Exchange of information and lessons learnt on management of natural hazards and civil protection in the European Union: the NEDIES project. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 7, EGU-A-06304.
- Lomoschitz, A., Hervás, J., Yepes, J., Meco, J., 2008. Characterisation of a Pleistocene debris-avalanche deposit in the Tenteniguada Basin, Gran Canaria Island, Spain. Landslides, 5: 227-234.
- Malet, J.-P., Thiery, Y., Puissant, A., Hervás, J., Günther, A., Grandjean, G., 2009. Landslide susceptibility mapping at 1:1M scale over France: exploratory results with a heuristic model. In: Malet, J.-P., Remaître, A., Boogard, T. (Eds), Proc. International Conference on Landslide Processes: from Geomorphologic Mapping to Dynamic Modelling, 6 -7 February 2009, Strasbourg, France. CERG Editions, Strasbourg, pp. 315-320.
- Malet, J.-P., Thiery, Y., Puissant, A., Hervás, J., Guenther, A., Grandjean, G., 2009. Landslide susceptibility mapping at 1:1M scale over France. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 11, EGU2009-3274.
- Rosin, P.L., Hervás, J., Barredo, J.I., 2000. Remote sensing image thresholding for landslide motion detection. In: Petrou, M. (Ed.), Proc. 1st International Workshop on Pattern Recognition Techniques in Remote Sensing (PRRS 2000), Andorra, 1 September 2000, BMVA Press, pp. 10-17.
- Rosin, P.L., Hervás, J., 2002. Image thresholding for landslide detection by genetic programming. In: Bruzzone, L. and Smits, P.C. (eds), Analysis of Multitemporal Remote Sensing Images. World Scientific, Singapore, pp. 65-72.
- Rosin, P.L., Hervás, J., 2005. Remote sensing image thresholding methods for determining landslide activity. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 26: 1075-1092.
- Schweigl, J., Hervás, J., 2009. Landslide Mapping in Austria. JRC Scientific and Technical Report EUR 23785 EN, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 61 pp. ISBN 978-92-79-11776-3.
- Van Den Eeckhaut, M., Hervás, J, 2010. Testing different techniques for detection, rapid mapping and monitoring of landslides in the Barcelonnette region using satellite and airborne optical imagery. In: Supper, R., Baron, I. (Eds.), Landslide Monitoring Technologies & Early Warning Systems. Current Research and Perspectives for the Future. Berichte der Geologischen Bundesanstalt, 82, pp. 38-39.
- Van Den Eeckhaut, M., Hervás, J., Jaedicke, C., Malet, J.-P., Picarelli, L., 2010. Calibration of logistic regression coefficients from limited landslide inventory data for European-wide landslide susceptibility modelling. In: Malet, J.-P., Glade, T., Casagli, N. (Eds.), Proc. Int. Conference Mountain Risks: Bringing Science to Society, Florence, Italy, 24-26 November 2010. CERG Editions, Strasbourg, pp. 515-521.
- Van Den Eeckhaut, M., Hervás, J., Montanarella, L., 2010. Validation of landslide inventory, susceptibility and hazard maps for risk management. In: Corbane, C., Carrion, D., Broglia, M., Pesaresi, M. (Eds.), Proc. 2nd International Workshop on Validation of Geo-Information Products for Crisis Management (VALgEO 2010), Ispra, Italy, 11-13 October 2010. EUR 24530 EN, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, pp. 41-49.
- Verachtert, E., Van Den Eeckhaut, M., Poesen, J., Deckers, J., 2010. Factors controlling the spatial distribution of soil piping erosion on loess-derived soils: A case study from central Belgium. Geomorphology, 118: 339–348.
Tel: +39 0332 785229; Fax: +39-0332-786394, E-mail: email@example.com
|Important legal notice
© European Communities, 1995-
| European Commission - Joint
Institute for Environment and Sustainability
Marc Van Liedekerke(tel. +39-0332-785179)
Panos Panagos (tel. +39-0332-785574)