Documents

Over the years, the JRC has produced many publications. These are found in this section. They have been sub-divided in various categories (see Subcategory buttons below). All more than 300 documents can also be inspected irrespective of the category (see 'All documents' below).

 

 

All Documents

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Elementi chimici nei funghi superiori (Chemical elements in fungi)
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports

Elementi chimici nei funghi superiori (Chemical elements in fungi) Funghi di riferimento come strumento di lavoro per la bioindicazione e la biodiversita (Fungi as study means for biodiversity and bio-indication I funghi in natura sono tra i principali agenti dei cicli biogeochimici, i cicli di materia ed energia alla base del funzionamento degli ecosistemi Il presente volume comprende: Indicazione delle localita di campionamento dei funghi e dei suoli, I dati analitici (ca 300.000) riguardanti la totalità dei campioni (ca 10.000) di funghi e di suoli analizzati, La statistica descrittiva per tutti i generi e le specie analizzati, Le mappe che illustrano la distribuzione delle concentrazioni degli elementi inorganici nei funghi. Author(s): R. M. Cenci, L. Cocchi, O. Petrini, F. Sena, C. Siniscalco, L. Vescovi, 22010 – 232 pp– EUR 24415 IT– EUR – Scientific and Technical Research series – ISSN 1018-5593 - ISBN 978-92-79-16023-3 Download report: (Size: 29.5 MB) Preview FrontPage : Last Update: 22/07/2010

Regional mapping and characterisation of old landslides in hilly regions using LiDAR-based imagery in Southern Flanders
Resource Type: Publications in Journals, Documents, Maps & Documents

Regional mapping and characterisation of old landslides in hilly regions using LiDAR-based imagery in Southern Flanders M. Van Den Eeckhaut, Jean Poesen, Frans Gullentops, Liesbeth Vandekerckhove, Javier Hervás. Regional mapping and characterisation of old landslides in hilly regions using LiDAR-based imagery in Southern Flanders (2011), QUATERNARY RESEARCH , Vol 75, No 3, pp. 721-733 . Analysis of LiDAR-derived imagery led to the discovery of more than 330 pre-Holocene to recent landslides in Southern Flanders (4850 km²). The morphology of three landslides, including the 266.5 ha deep-seated gravitational slope deformation in Alden Biesen, was investigated in more detail. The analysis of the morphological and topographical characteristics (width-length relation, frequency-area distribution and topographical threshold) of the landslides revealed important differences compared to the characteristics reported in other landslide studies, and helped understanding possible landslide triggering mechanisms. Especially the possibility of a seismic origin of the landslides was investigated. Finally, a heuristic model for region-wide landslide susceptibility mapping was successfully tested. The susceptibility model and map allow prediction of future landslide locations and contribute to better understanding the role of individual causal factors on landslide location and spatial density. The results suggest that landslides on low-gradient, soil-mantled hills are a more important contributor to landscape evolution of hilly areas than was hitherto thought. The morphology of all hilly regions of Flanders is clearly marked by landslide processes and higher landslide densities often coincide with the presence of quaternary active faults. Access the paper: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0033589411000263 Last Update: 05/09/2012

Characterisation of productivity limitation of salt-affected lands in different climatic regions of Europe using remote sensing derived productivity indicators
Resource Type: Publications in Journals, Documents, Maps & Documents

Characterisation of productivity limitation of salt-affected lands in different climatic regions of Europe using remote sensing derived productivity indicators E. Ivits, M. Cherlet, T. Tóth, K. E. Lewinska, G. Tóth. Characterisation of productivity limitation of salt-affected lands in different climatic regions of Europe using remote sensing derived productivity indicators (2011), LAND DEGRADATION & DEVELOPMENT , pp. 1-15. Soil salinity is a global issue and one of the major causes of land degradation. The large scale monitoring of salt affected areas is therefore very important to shed light of rehabilitation measures and to avoid further land degradation. We address the productivity limitation of salt affected soils across the European continent by the usage of soil maps and high temporal resolution time series of satellite images derived from the SPOT VEGETATION sensor. Using the yearly dynamism of the vegetation signal derived from the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) we decomposed the spectral curve into its Base Fraction and Seasonal Dynamism fractions next to an index approximating Gross Primary Productivity (GPP). We observe GPP, Base Fraction and Seasonal Dynamism productivity differences of saline, sodic and not salt affected soils under croplands and grasslands in four major climatic zones of the European continent. ANOVA models and post-hoc tests of mean productivity values indicate significant productivity differences between the observed salt affected and salt free areas, between management levels of soils as well as between the saline and sodic character of the land. The analysis gives insight into the limiting effect of climate in relation to the productivity of soil affected soils. Access the paper: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ldr.1140/abstract/ Last Update: 05/09/2012

Site Specific Land Management; General Concepts and Applications
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports

Site Specific Land Management; General Concepts and Applications To meet the growing need of people for increasing farm income and to minimize the negative environmental impact of today’s farm practices, a new farming concept has been evolved where inputs are fine tuned and optimized according to the local field variability such that yield increment is achieved with a minimum harm to the local environment. This farming concept is different than the traditional farming system and can be highlighted as a precision agriculture system or more specifically termed as site specific land management (SSLM) which takes the advantage of recent technological developments and their uses in agriculture. It operates by matching resource application and agronomic practices with soil attributes and crop requirements as they vary across a field leading to the overall economic and environmental benefits. This report explains in brief a general concept and principle of this eco-friendly farming approach with some common procedures to be followed while planning of SSLM in any area. It also provides an example of applying this farming concept in a small area in Belgium and recommends some land and crop management practices. Author(s): Adhikari K, Carre F, Toth G, Montanarella L. OPOCE , 2009 – 60 pp. – EUR 23978– Scientific and Technical Research series – ISSN 1018-5593, ISBN 978-92-79-13350-3, DOI 10.2788/32619 Keywords: land management , Farm practices, farming technology, SSLM Download report: (Size: 1.5 MB) Preview FrontPage : Last Update: 21/05/2010

Data Update and Model Revision for Soil Profile Analytical Database of Europe of Measured Parameters (SPADE/M2)
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports

Data Update and Model Revision for Soil Profile Analytical Database of Europe of Measured Parameters (SPADE/M2) The Soil Profile Analytical Database of Europe of Measured parameters (SPADE/M) is part of the distribution package of the Soil Geographic Database of Eurasia (SGDBE). Typical combinations of profile parameters and morphological characteristics of the sample site were intended to support the definition of generalized rules for estimating pedological and hydrological properties of the pedo-transfer rule (PTR) database of the SGDBE. In 2005 the data of the SGDBE were transferred to a common data storage structure. In 2008 original hard-copies on profile measurements were re-discovered at the National Soil Resources Institute, Cranfield University (NSRI). To make the original data more generally available the profiles were added to the existing database. This step required changes to the structure of the database and a validation of the all entries for accurate and reliable data storage and retrieval. Author(s): R. Hiederer. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities , 2010 – 55 pp. – EUR 24333 – Scientific and Technical Research series – ISSN 1018-5593, ISBN 978-92-79-15646-5, DOI 10.2788/85262 Keywords: Soil Profiles, SPADE, pedo-transfer rule, European Soil Database Download report: (Size: 1.0 MB) Preview FrontPage : Last Update: 26/04/2010

Are grasslands important habitats for soil microarthropod conservation?
Resource Type: Publications in Journals, Documents, Maps & Documents

Are grasslands important habitats for soil microarthropod conservation? Cristina Menta, Alan Leoni, Ciro Gardi and Federica Delia Conti. Are grasslands important habitats for soil microarthropod conservation? (2011), Biodiversity and Conservation, 2011, Volume 20, Number 5, Pages 1073-1087. Biodiversity has been a focal aim of environmental protection since the Rio conference, but only with the beginning of the new millennium did soil biodiversity become an important aspect of international policy. Edaphic fauna play a key role in many soil functions, such as organic matter decomposition, humus formation and nutrient element cycling; moreover, affect the porosity, aeration, infiltration and distribution of organic matter in soil horizons, modifying soil structure and improving its fertility. The ecosystem services provided by soil animals are becoming progressively lost due to agricultural practice intensification, which causes a reduction in both abundance and taxonomic diversity of soil communities. In the present study, a permanent grassland habitat was studied in order to evaluate its potential as a soil biodiversity reservoir in agroecosystems. Grassland samples were compared with samples from a semi-natural woodland area and an arable land site. Microarthropod abundances, Acari/Collembola ratio (A/C), Shannon diversity index (H0) and evenness index (E) were calculated. QBS-ar index was used in order to evaluate soil biological quality. Microarthropod communities of the three land use typologies differed in both the observed groups and their abundance. Steady soil taxa characterized both woodland and grassland soils, whereas their abundances were significantly higher in woodland soil. Access the paper: http://www.springerlink.com/content/k2g233x3p66u6g33/ Last Update: 05/09/2012

Assessing Soil Processes and Function across an International Network of Critical Zone Observatories: Research Hypotheses and Experimental Design
Resource Type: Publications in Journals, Documents, Maps & Documents

Assessing Soil Processes and Function across an International Network of Critical Zone Observatories: Research Hypotheses and Experimental Design Banwart Steven, Bernasconi Stefano,......., Panagos Panos, ..........Zhang Bin. Assessing Soil Processes and Function across an International Network of Critical Zone Observatories: Research Hypotheses and Experimental Design (2011), VADOSE ZONE JOURNAL , Vol 10, No 3, pp. 974–987. European Union policy on soil threats and soil protection has prioritised new research to address global soil threats. This research draws on the methodology of Critical Zone Observatories (CZOs) to focus a critical mass of international, multi-disciplinary expertise at specific field sites. These CZOs are selected as part of an experimental design to study soil processes and ecosystem function along a hypothesised soil life cycle; from incipient soil formation where new parent material is being deposited, to highly degraded soils that have experienced millennia of intensive land use. Further CZOs have been selected to broaden the range of soil environments and data sets to test soil process models that represent the stages of the soil life cycle. The scientific methodology for this research focuses on the central role of soil structure and soil aggregate formation and stability in soil processes. Research methods include detailed analysis and mathematical modelling of soil properties related to aggregate formation and their relation to key processes of reactive transport, nutrient transformation and carbon and food web dynamics in soil ecosystems. Within this programme of research, quantification of soil processes across an international network of CZOs is focussed on understanding soil ecosystem services including their quantitative monetary valuation within the soil life cycle. Access the paper: http://dx.doi.org/10.2136/vzj2010.0136 Last Update: 05/09/2012

Case Study - Italy, Sustainable Agriculture and Soil Conservation (SoCo Project)
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports

Case Study - Italy, Sustainable Agriculture and Soil Conservation (SoCo Project) Ten case studies were carried out in Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom between spring and summer 2008. The selection of case study areas was designed to capture differences in soil degradation processes, soil types, climatic conditions, farm structures and farming practices, institutional settings and policy priorities. A harmonised methodological approach was pursued in order to gather insights from a range of contrasting conditions over a geographically diverse area. The case studies were carried out by local experts to reflect the specificities of the selected case studies. Authors: Rusco E, Maréchal B, Tiberi M, Bernacconi C, Ciabocco G, Ricci P, Spurio E. Editors: Gay S, Sammeth F, Schmidt M, . Case Study – Italy, Sustainable Agriculture and Soil Conservation (SoCo Project). Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities 2009, EUR 24131 – Scientific and Technical Research series – ISSN 1018-5593 , ISBN 978-92-79-14958-0, DOI 10.2791/39333. Keywords: SoCo, Soil conservation, Agriculture, Marche Region Download report: (Size: 7.9 MB) Preview FrontPage : Last Update: 26/04/2010

An Evaluation of the Short-Term Progress of Restoration Combining Ecological Assessment and Public Perception
Resource Type: Publications in Journals, Documents, Maps & Documents

An Evaluation of the Short-Term Progress of Restoration Combining Ecological Assessment and Public Perception Thorunn Petursdottir, Asa L. Aradottir, Karl Benediktsson. An Evaluation of the Short-Term Progress of Restoration Combining Ecological Assessment and Public Perception (2011), RESTORATION ECOLOGY, pp. 1-12. Most of today's restoration programs have multiple objectives: aiming for socio-economic as well as environmental benefits. Their monitoring and evaluation should therefore be based on measuring multidisciplinary indicators. In this study we examined the short term impacts of different restoration methods using ecological as well as visual/social measures. The study included five year old sites re-vegetated with grasses (native/non-native) and Nootka lupine (an introduced species) compared with control sites. Parameters measured included plant cover, species composition and soil C, N and pH. Furthermore, color photos were used to evaluate people¿s perception on the different treatments where participants were asked five questions on the visual appearance of the sites. Vegetation cover was significantly higher for all restoration treatments (36-92%) than the cover on control plots (6%). Biological soil crust and mosses were mostly absent, and only minor differences were found in measured soil parameters. Visual appearance of fertilized sites was in all cases ranked higher than the control sites except the lupine sites. Photos that participants regarded as resembling natural vegetation forms ranked higher in all cases than the ones they perceived as artificial. We conclude that ecological indicators are essential in evaluating the success of ecological restoration because restoration of ecosystem functions and structure are fundamental for the achievement of other benefits. Social factors, such as perception of the restored sites are, however, also very important since restoration programs always need the support and acknowledgment of society and should generally be designed with societies¿ needs and preferences in mind. Access the paper: 10.1111/j.1526-100X.2011.00855.x Last Update: 05/09/2012

Integration of the Soil Database of Turkey into European Soil Database 1:1.000.000
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports

Integration of the Soil Database of Turkey into European Soil Database 1:1.000.000 In order to extend the Soil Geographical Database (SGDBE) to the countries of Mediterranean Basin, the preparation of soil geographical database of Turkey at 1:1 million scales was initiated at the end of 2008. In the current report, the reader will be informed about the preparation of soil geographical database of Turkey compatible with European database and how the Turkish soil data have been integrated the European Soil Database. The implementation of this work has been achieved since we have built a common understanding and nomenclature of soils in Europe and Mediterranean region. A number of attributes have been transformed from local/regional/national soil datasets while some other attributes have been obtained from auxiliary datasets using remote sensing and GIS Techniques. Authors: Ece Aksoy, Panos Panagos, Luca Montanarella, Arwyn Jones (2010). Integration of the Soil Database of Turkey into European Soil Database 1:1.000.000. EUR 24295 EN. ISSN 1018-5593. ISBN 978-92-79-15306-8. DOI 10.2788/77892. 45 pp. Keywords: European Soil Database 1:1.000.000, Turkish Soil Data, GIS Techniques, Remote Sensing Download report: (Size: 5.6 MB) Preview FrontPage : Last Update: 30/03/2010

SCAPE: The way ahead
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports

SCAPE: The way ahead SCAPE project (Soil Conservation and Protection for Europe) has given scientists the opportunity to discuss soil conservation and protection strategies in an informal way with people who are either responsible for finding solutions, or being affected by them. Several hundreds of people have contributed to this book, either collectively or individually. They include the scientists, soil conservation and protection practitioners and stakeholders who participated in the SCAPE platforms, as well as many EU officers who are responsible for future research and environment policy. They also include people who met at the Vital Soil Conference at the Hague in November 2004 and as well the group of International experts in soil and environmental law who met at the September 2005 Conference in Iceland. Anton Imeson, Arnold Arnoldussen, Diego de la Rosa, Luca Montanaralla, Luuk Dorren, Michiel Curfs, Olafur Arnalds, Sanneke van Asselen et (2005) SCAPE: The way ahead. 139pp. Keywords: Soil Conservation, Soil Protection, Soil Data, European Sustainable Land Management Download report: (Size: 10.8 MB) Preview FrontPage : Last Update: 22/03/2010

Evaluating the Effect of Nutrient Levels of Major Soil Types on the Productivity of Wheatlands in Hungary
Resource Type: Publications in Journals, Documents, Maps & Documents

Evaluating the Effect of Nutrient Levels of Major Soil Types on the Productivity of Wheatlands in Hungary Tamás Hermann & Gergely Tóth. Evaluating the Effect of Nutrient Levels of Major Soil Types on the Productivity of Wheatlands in Hungary. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, Volume 42, Issue 13, 2011 Soil nutrient status is one of the most important constituents of land productivity. The research presented in this paper is aimed at describing the influence of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium availability on crop yield across the major soil types of Hungary, under different climatic conditions. For this purpose, historical times series data from a five year period (1985-1989) regarding soil, land management and crop yield of more than eighty thousand fields, representing approximately four million hectares of arable land, were statistically analyzed. The database was recently recovered from statistical archives stored in the format of digital records of the early 1980s and were used to study the productivity of major soil types for winter wheat cropping under balanced fertilizer input. Calculations were made to quantify the effects of soil nutrient levels. The evaluation was also performed for optimal and suboptimal climate conditions. Results show that the effect of nitrogen availability (as obtained from organic matter content) had the largest influence on winter wheat yields. Up to a 26% difference in yields was observed, both on those soils with balanced material regimes and on those with leaching material regimes, under optimal climatic conditions. Access the paper: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00103624.2011.581728 Last Update: 05/09/2012

Multi-scale European Soil Information System (MEUSIS): A multi-scale method to derive soil indicators
Resource Type: Publications in Journals, Documents, Maps & Documents

Multi-scale European Soil Information System (MEUSIS): A multi-scale method to derive soil indicators Panagos P., van Liedekerke M., Montanarella L. Multi-scale European Soil Information System (MEUSIS): A multi-scale method to derive soil indicators (2011) Computational Geosciences, 15 (3), pp. 463-475. The Multi-scale Soil Information System (MEUSIS) can be a suitable framework for building a nested system of soil data that could facilitate interoperability through a common coordinate reference system, a unique grid coding database, a set of detailed and standardized metadata, and an open exchangeable format. In the context of INSPIRE Directive, MEUSIS may be implemented as a system facilitating the update of existing soil information and accelerating the harmonization of various soil information systems. In environmental data like the soil one, it is common to generalize accurate data obtained at the field to coarser scales using either the pedotransfer rules or knowledge of experts or even some statistical solutions which combine single values of spatially distributed data. The most common statistical process for generalization is averaging the values within the study area. The upscaling process is accompanied with significant statistical analysis in order to demonstrate the method suitability. The coarser resolution nested grids cells (10 × 10 km) represent broad regions where the calculated soil property (e. g., organic carbon) can be accurately upscaled. Multi-scaled approaches are urgently required to integrate different disciplines (such as Statistics) and provide a meta-model platform to improve current mechanistic modeling frameworks, request new collected data, and identify critical research questions. Access the paper: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10596-010-9216-0 Last Update: 05/07/2012

Evaluation of BioSoil Demonstration Project - Preliminary Data Analysis.
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports

Evaluation of BioSoil Demonstration Project - Preliminary Data Analysis. The BioSoil demonstration Project was initiated under the Forest Focus-Scheme (Regulation (EC) Nr. 2152/2003) concerning the monitoring of forests and environmental interactions in the Community, and aimed to broaden the scope of previous forest monitoring activities (on atmospheric pollution and forest fires) to the fields of soil characteristics and biodiversity indicators. The preliminary data analysis concentrated on the evaluation of a selected number of parameters of the data submitted by NFCs and sampling procedures. For soil the parameters needed to establish soil organic carbon densities were analysed. Hiederer, R.and T. Durrant (2010) Evaluation of BioSoil Demonstration Project - Preliminary Data Analysis. EUR 24258 EN. Luxembourg: Office for Official. Publications of the European Communities. 126pp. Keywords: BioSoil, Forest Focus, Soil, Organic Carbon, biodiversity indicators Download report: (Size: 4.8 MB) Preview FrontPage : Last Update: 24/02/2010

Euro soils: Identification, collection, Treatment and Characterization.
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports

Euro soils: Identification, collection, Treatment and Characterization. Methodological Aspects of Reference Soil Sampling. Field Work on euro-soils profile anaysis and sampling procedures. Pedological Characterization composition analysis. Determination of organochlorine compounds. Evaluation of Laboratory Ringtest . Kuhnt and Muntau. (1994). Euro soils: Identification, collection, Treatment and Characterization. EUR 19460 EN, 152pp. Keywords: Euro soils, Collection, Soil Sampling Download report: (Size: 1.6 MB) Preview FrontPage : Last Update: 11/02/2010

Prediction of spatial patterns of collapsed pipes in loess-derived soils in a temperate humid climate using logistic regression .
Resource Type: Publications in Journals, Documents, Maps & Documents

Prediction of spatial patterns of collapsed pipes in loess-derived soils in a temperate humid climate using logistic regression . Verachtert E., Den Eeckhaut M.V., Poesen J., Govers G., Deckers J. Prediction of spatial patterns of collapsed pipes in loess-derived soils in a temperate humid climate using logistic regression (2011) Geomorphology, 130 (3-4), pp. 185-196. Soil piping (tunnel erosion) has been recognised as an important erosion process in collapsible loess-derived soils of temperate humid climates, which can cause collapse of the topsoil and formation of discontinuous gullies. Information about the spatial patterns of collapsed pipes and regional models describing these patterns is still limited. Therefore, this study aims at better understanding the factors controlling the spatial distribution and predicting pipe collapse. A dataset with parcels suffering from collapsed pipes (n= 560) and parcels without collapsed pipes was obtained through a regional survey in a 236. km2 study area in the Flemish Ardennes (Belgium). Logistic regression was applied to find the best model describing the relationship between the presence/absence of a collapsed pipe and a set of independent explanatory variables (i.e. slope gradient, drainage area, distance-to-thalweg, curvature, aspect, soil type and lithology). Special attention was paid to the selection procedure of the grid cells without collapsed pipes. Apart from the first piping susceptibility map created by logistic regression modelling, a second map was made based on topographical thresholds of slope gradient and upslope drainage area. The logistic regression model allowed identification of the most important factors controlling pipe collapse. Pipes are much more likely to occur when a topographical threshold depending on both slope gradient and upslope area is exceeded in zones with a sufficient water supply (due to topographical convergence and/or the presence of a clay-rich lithology). Access the paper: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2011.03.015 Last Update: 05/07/2012

Effects of soil-surface microbial community phenotype upon physical and hydrological properties of an arable soil: A microcosm study
Resource Type: Publications in Journals, Documents, Maps & Documents

Effects of soil-surface microbial community phenotype upon physical and hydrological properties of an arable soil: A microcosm study Jeffery S., Harris J.A., Rickson R.J., Ritz K. Effects of soil-surface microbial community phenotype upon physical and hydrological properties of an arable soil: A microcosm study (2010) European Journal of Soil Science, 61 (4), pp. 493-503. The nature of the first few millimetres of the soil surface strongly affects water infiltration rates, generation of run-off, soil detachment and sediment transport. We hypothesized that the phenotypic community structure of the soil-surface microbiota affects the physical and hydrological properties of an arable soil. A range of contrasting microbial community phenotypes were established in microcosms by manipulating the wavelength of light reaching the soil surface, with the microcosms being incubated in the field for approximately 6 months. Phenotypes were characterized by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), ergosterol and chlorophyll analysis. The microcosms were then subjected to simulated rainfall at an intensity of 60 mm hour-1 for 20 minutes at a slope gradient of 9°. Water infiltration rates, run-off generation, soil loss (including a particle-size analysis of the sediment) and soil-surface shear strength were quantified.Distinct microbial phenotypes developed on the soil surfaces with UV-A and restricted-UV treatments when compared with subsurface layers. There was significantly greater fungal biomass in the no-light treatment when compared with all other treatments, with approximately 4.5 times more ergosterol being extracted from the subsurface layer of the no-light treatment when compared with other treatments. The no-light treatment produced the greatest amount of run-off, which was approximately 15% greater than the restricted photosynthetically-active radiation (PAR) treatment. Access the paper: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2389.2010.01249.x Last Update: 05/07/2011

Biochar application to soils
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports

Biochar application to soils Biochar application to soils is being considered as a means to sequester carbon (C) while concurrently improving soil functions. The main focus of this report is providing a critical scientific review of the current state of knowledge regarding the effects of biochar application to soils on soil properties, processes and functions. Wider issues, including atmospheric emissions and occupational health and safety associated to biochar production and handling, are put into context. The aim of this review is to provide a sound scientific basis for policy development, to identify gaps in current knowledge, and to recommend further research relating to biochar application to soils. Verheijen, F.G.A., Jeffery, S., Bastos, A.C., van der Velde, M., and Diafas, I. (2009). Biochar Application to Soils - A Critical Scientific Review of Effects on Soil Properties, Processes and Functions. EUR 24099 EN, Office for the Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 149pp. Keywords: Biochar, sequester carbon, charcoal Download report: (Size: 1.2 MB) Preview FrontPage : Last Update: 02/02/2010

Using existing soil data to derive hydraulic parameters for simulation models in environmental studies and in land use planning.
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports

Using existing soil data to derive hydraulic parameters for simulation models in environmental studies and in land use planning.

One way of addressing the paucity of soil hydraulic data for simulation modeling is through the use of pedotransfer functions. In this case soil data routinely collected during systematic soil surveys are used to predict hydraulic characteristics.

To derive pedotransfer functions for European soils, 18 Institutes in 10 EU countries participated in the establishment of HYPRES Database.

The first task was to develop a flexible database structure. Next, the database was filled with measured hydraulic characteristics. Finally, the stored data were used for the derivation of classes and continuous pedotransfer functions.

Authors: J.H.M. Wosten, A. Lilly, A. Nemes, C. Le Bas .

Final Report of the European Union Funded project, 1998. 106pp, 15 Figures; 11 Tables;

References Keywords: Pedotransfer function, Texture Class, Soil Physics

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Combining spatial data in landslide reactivation susceptibility mapping: A likelihood ratio-based approach in W Belgium
Resource Type: Publications in Journals, Documents, Maps & Documents

Combining spatial data in landslide reactivation susceptibility mapping: A likelihood ratio-based approach in W Belgium Dewitte O., Chung C.-J., Cornet Y., Daoudi M., Demoulin A. Combining spatial data in landslide reactivation susceptibility mapping: A likelihood ratio-based approach in W Belgium (2010) Geomorphology, 122 (1-2), pp. 153-166. A key issue in landslide susceptibility mapping concerns the relevance of the spatial data combination used in the prediction. Various combinations of high-resolution predictor variables and possibilities of selecting them from a larger dataset are analysed. The scarp reactivation of several landslides in a hilly region of W Belgium is investigated at the pixel scale. The susceptibility modelling uses the reactivated scarp segments as the dependent variable and 13 factors at a 2. m-resolution related to topography, hydrology, land use and lithology as potential independent variables. The modelling uses a likelihood ratio approach based on the comparison, for each independent variable, between two empirical distribution functions (EDFs), respectively for the reactivated and non-reactivated areas. It uses these EDFs as favourability values to build membership values and combine them with a fuzzy Gamma operator. Five different data combinations are tested and compared by analysing the prediction-rate curves obtained by cross-validation. The geomorphological value of the resulting susceptibility maps is also discussed. This research shows relevant results for predicting the susceptibility to scarp reactivation. Access the paper: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2010.06.010 Last Update: 05/07/2011

Preface: Soil erosion and degradation in mediterranean type ecosystems
Resource Type: Publications in Journals, Documents, Maps & Documents

Preface: Soil erosion and degradation in mediterranean type ecosystems Cerda A., Lavee H., Romero-Diaz A., Hooke J., Montanarella L. Preface: Soil erosion and degradation in mediterranean type ecosystems (2010) Land Degradation and Development, 21 (2), pp. 71-74. Mediterranean-type ecosystems border the Mediterranean Sea, occur in southern Australia, fringe California and Chile and are found in the southern tip of Africa. These regions show similar soil and vegetation characteristics (Di Castri and Mooney, 1974) due to a climate characterized by warm to hot and dry summers and mild winters. Rainfall (500mmy-1 on average, although very variable) is below the potential evapotranspiration (1000mmy-1) and the annual variability is high, with intense droughts and rainfall events that include floods. Mediterranean environments can also experience intense rainfall, winter frost and very hot periods in summer. Mediterranean-type ecosystems are characterized by a seasonally contrasted distribution of precipitation, by the coincidence of the driest and hottest season in summer, by an often mountainous terrain, and by a long history of intense human occupation, especially around the Mediterranean Sea. Access the paper: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ldr.968 Last Update: 05/07/2011

Final report on the project ‘Sustainable Agriculture and Soil Conservation (SoCo)’
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports

Final report on the project ‘Sustainable Agriculture and Soil Conservation (SoCo)’ This report synthesises the findings of the SoCo project and translates them into conclusions and recommendations. Following the introduction (Chapter 1), Chapter 2 reviews soil degradation processes, soil conservation practices and policy measures at European level. Soil degradation risk was assessed through parametric and empirical models, whereas the review of soil conservation farming practices is based on the available literature. The literature review of policy measures is supplemented by a survey of policy implementation at national or regional level. Chapter 3 takes the analysis to the local scale by means of ten case studies distributed over three macro-regions. Aggregated environmental benefits of adopting particular soil conservation practices are explored with model calculations in Chapter 4. Finally, Chapter 5 discusses the effectiveness and efficiency of instruments for soil protection, maintenance and improvement in Europe, exploring opportunities and critical issues linked to the adoption of conservation practices. The report closes with policy-relevant conclusions as a basis for policy recommendations. Authors: SoCo Project Team, Editors: Geertrui Louwagie, Stephan Hubertus Gay, Alison Burrell.Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. EUR 23820 EN, ISBN 978-92-79-12400-6, ISSN 1018-5593, DOI 10.2791/10052 Download report: (Size: 8 MB) Preview FrontPage : Last Update: 24/09/2009

Carbon concentrations and stocks in forest soils of Europe.
Resource Type: Publications in Journals, Documents, Maps & Documents

Carbon concentrations and stocks in forest soils of Europe. Baritz R., Seufert G., Montanarella L., Van Ranst E. Carbon concentrations and stocks in forest soils of Europe (2010) Forest Ecology and Management, 260 (3), pp. 262-277. This study presents the results of a series of evaluations of a continent-wide soil database (EU/UN-ECE Level I) with the aim to estimate baseline soil carbon concentrations and stocks. The methodology included the biogeographic stratification of soil carbon measurements throughout Europe using climatic zones derived from the Soil Regions Map of Europe. The presented stock estimates range from 1.3 to 70.8. t. C/ha for the O-layer, and from 11.3 to 126.3. t. C/ha for the mineral soil 0-20. cm (Germany: 0-30. cm) (5 and 95 percentiles). Histosols were excluded because of methodological differences and data gaps. When looking at the median values of the strata investigated, relationships were found. For example, carbon stocks in the O-layer of sandy soils are distinctly higher than those of fine-textured soils. However, the variability is so high that some of these relationships disappear. For example in western and central Europe, the level of carbon stocks in the mineral soil between shallow soils (Leptosols) and more deeply developed soils (Podzols and Cambisols) do not differ very much. It was also found that just the investigation of topsoils is not sufficient to understand the regional pattern of organic matter in forest soils - unless the subsoil becomes included as well. It is hypothesized that for Europe, the impact of site factors such as climate, texture and relief are difficult to extract from such a database if the data are only stratified according to macro-climatic areas. Access the paper: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2010.03.025 Last Update: 05/07/2011

Distribution of Organic Carbon in Soil Profile Data.
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports

Distribution of Organic Carbon in Soil Profile Data. Soil organic carbon (SOC) content has been estimated at pan-European scale for the soil layer from 0 to a depth of 30 cm. The methodology used to generate the data layer relied on a combination of a pedo-transfer rule (PTR) and pedo-transfer functions (PTF). The PTR has been developed based on PTR No. 21 of the PTR database of the Soil Geographic Database of Eurasia (SGDBE). The original conditions of the rule system have been revised and amended to accommodate organic soils and peat. The revised PTR for topsoil SOC content comprises 120 ordered conditions of combinations of 5 soil and environmental parameters with an output to one of 6 classes of SOC content. Author(s): R. Hiederer, Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2009 – 126 pp. EUR 23980 EN, ISSN 1018-5593, ISBN 978-92-79-13352-7, DOI 10.2788/33102 Download report: (Size: 3 MB) Preview FrontPage : Last Update: 18/09/2009

Comparison of two landslide susceptibility assessments in the Champagne-Ardenne region (France).
Resource Type: Publications in Journals, Documents, Maps & Documents

Comparison of two landslide susceptibility assessments in the Champagne-Ardenne region (France). Den Eeckhaut M.V., Marre A., Poesen J. Comparison of two landslide susceptibility assessments in the Champagne-Ardenne region (France) (2010) Geomorphology, 115 (1-2), pp. 141-155. The vineyards of the Montagne de Reims are mostly planted on steep south-oriented cuesta fronts receiving a maximum of sun radiation. Due to the location of the vineyards on steep hillslopes, the viticultural activity is threatened by slope failures. This study attempts to better understand the spatial patterns of landslide susceptibility in the Champagne–Ardenne region by comparing a heuristic (qualitative) and a statistical (quantitative) model in a 1120 km² study area. The heuristic landslide susceptibility model was adopted from the Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières, the GEGEAA – Reims University and the Comité Interprofessionnel du Vin de Champagne. In this model, expert knowledge of the region was used to assign weights to all slope classes and lithologies present in the area, but the final susceptibility map was never evaluated with the location of mapped landslides. For the statistical landslide susceptibility assessment, logistic regression was applied to a dataset of 291 'old' (Holocene) landslides. The robustness of the logistic regression model was evaluated and ROC curves were used for model calibration and validation. Access the paper: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2009.09.042 Last Update: 05/07/2011