Documents

Over the years, the JRC has produced many publications. These are found in this section. They have been sub-divided in various categories (see Subcategory buttons below). All more than 300 documents can also be inspected irrespective of the category (see 'All documents' below).

 

 

All Documents

Displaying 51 - 75 of 374 | Show 25 | 50 | All results per page.
Risk Assessment Methodologies of Soil Threats in Europe
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports

Risk Assessment Methodologies of Soil Threats in Europe This report which presents the results of the RAMSOIL project is published. The general objective of the RAMSOIL project was to provide scientific guidelines on possibilities for EU wide parameter harmonization based on detailed information on current risk assessment methodologies of soil threats encountered within EU Member States. In RAMSOIL current risk assessments methodologies used in the EU are collected and evaluated. The results are summarized in this book. Currently, there are various risk assessment methodologies (RAMs) and the question has risen to what extent these RAMs yield similar outcome and, if not, whether the outcome can be harmonized, i.e. whether the results of the various RAMs can be made compatible or comparable. In this study i) the current status of RAMs for erosion, soil organic matter decline, compaction, and salinization in the European Union (EU27) is reviewed, and ii) the need and the options for harmonization are assessed. The need for harmonization was defined as the likelihood of achieving different outcomes when using different RAMs, whereas the options for harmonization refer to the efforts that are required to harmonize soil RAMs. Author(s):Christy van Beek and Gergely Tóth 2012 – 84pp. – EUR 24097 EN – EUR – Scientific and Technical Research series – ISSN 1018-5593 (print), ISSN 1831-9424 (online) , ISBN 978-92-79-14291-8, doi: 10.2788/47096 Download report: (Size: 1.5 MB) Preview FrontPage : Last Update: 10/05/2012

Global Soil Organic Carbon Estimates and the Harmonized World Soil Database
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports

Global Soil Organic Carbon Estimates and the Harmonized World Soil Database Global estimates of soil organic carbon stocks have been produced in the past to support the calculation of potential emissions of CO2 from the soil under scenarios of change land use/cover and climatic conditions (IPCC, 2006), but very few global estimates are presented as spatial data. For global spatial layers on soil parameters, the most recent and complete dataset is available as the Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD). The amended HWSD was compared to data from 4 other global data sets on SOC stocks. The comparative evaluation has demonstrated that bulk density is the most important factor for estimating SOC stocks and mainly responsible for the differences between estimates. Most affected from the variability in bulk density are SOC stocks in areas with soils which are high in organic carbon. Author(s): R. Hiederer, M. Köchy 2012 – 79 pp. – EUR 25225 EN – EUR Scientific and Technical Research series – ISSN 1831-9424 (online), ISSN 1018-5593 (print), ISBN 978-92-79-23108-7, doi:10.2788/13267 Download report: (Size: 1.5 MB) Preview FrontPage : Last Update: 20/03/2012

Statistical Modelling of Europe-wide Landslide Susceptibility Using Limited Landslide Inventory Data
Resource Type: Publications in Journals, Documents, Maps & Documents

Statistical Modelling of Europe-wide Landslide Susceptibility Using Limited Landslide Inventory Data Van Den Eeckhaut M., Hervas J., Jaedicke C., Malet J.-P., Montanarella L., Nadim F. Statistical modelling of Europe-wide landslide susceptibility using limited landslide inventory data (2012) Landslides, 9 (3) , pp. 357-369. In many regions, the absence of a landslide inventory hampers the production of susceptibility or hazard maps. Therefore, a method combining a procedure for sampling of landslide-affected and landslide-free grid cells from a limited landslide inventory and logistic regression modelling was tested for susceptibility mapping of slide- and flow-type landslides on a European scale. Landslide inventories were available for Norway, Campania (Italy) and the Barcelonnette Basin (France) and from each inventory a random subsample was extracted. In addition, a landslide dataset was produced from the analysis of Google Earth images in combination with extraction of landslide locations reported in scientific publications. Attention was paid to have a representative distribution of landslides over Europe. In total, the landslide-affected sample contained 1340 landslides. Then, a procedure to select landslide-free grid cells was designed taking account of the incompleteness of the landslide inventory and the high proportion of flat areas in Europe. Using stepwise logistic regression, a model including slope gradient, standard deviation of slope gradient, lithology, soil and land cover types was calibrated. The classified susceptibility map produced from the model was then validated by visual comparison with national landslide inventory or susceptibility maps available from literature. The first results are promising and suggest that in case of landslide disasters the method can be used for urgently required landslide susceptibility mapping in regions where currently only sparse landslide inventory data are available. Access the paper: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10346-011-0299-z Last Update: 02/09/2013

Impact of land-take on the land resource base for crop production in the European Union
Resource Type: Publications in Journals, Documents, Maps & Documents

Impact of land-take on the land resource base for crop production in the European Union Toth G. Impact of land-take on the land resource base for crop production in the European Union (2012) Science of the Total Environment, 435-436 , pp. 202-214. Spatial analyses of land productivity and land use data from 2000 and 2006 were performed to assess the deterioration of land resources for biomass production of the European Union. Data show that while all member states of the EU experiences constant decrease of its production capacity, there are also considerable differences among countries and regions. Based on the analysis of 25 member states, the EU lost 0.2% of its agricultural land and 0.23% of its productive potential in the period between 2000 and 2006 due to land take and conversion to artificial surfaces. The loss of agricultural land during the study period was the highest in the Netherlands, which lost with the land conversions 1.44% of its biomass production potential within six years. The figures are quite alarming for Cyprus (0.84%) and Spain (0.43%) as well. In metropolitan areas of Amsterdam, Berlin, Bratislava, Bucharest, Copenhagen, Madrid, Milan and Vienna infrastructural investment occurred on the better agricultural land while Budapest, Paris and Warsaw spread their urban growth to directions where less productive land of their regions situates. The Netherlands, Denmark and Ireland had to face the largest loss of their food production capacity accounted for each citizen, exceeding the equivalent of 1500 kg*ha-1 *year-1 wheat in all three countries. Access the paper: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969712009369 Last Update: 02/09/2013

The State of Soil in Europe - A contribution of the JRC to the European Environment Agency's Environment State and Outlook Report - SOER 2010
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports

The State of Soil in Europe - A contribution of the JRC to the European Environment Agency's Environment State and Outlook Report - SOER 2010 This report published by the JRC and the European Environment Agency provides a comprehensive overview of soil resources and degradation processes. The core of this report was prepared for the Assessment on Soil, which forms part of the 'The European Environment - state and outlook 2010 Report' (SOER) 20102, coordinated by the European Environment Agency (EEA). This Reference Report uses data from the European Soil Data Centre (ESDAC), managed on behalf of EU institutions by the JRC. The information also helps European citizens to better understand, care for and improve Europe's environment. The soil assessment was one of a set of 13 Europe-wide thematic assessments of key environmental themes and the only one coordinated by the JRC. Author(s): Arwyn Jones, Panos Panagos, Sara Barcelo, Faycal Bouraoui, Claudio Bosco, Olivier Dewitte, Ciro Gardi, Markus Erhard, Javier Hervás, Roland Hiederer, Simon Jeffery, Anke Lükewille, Luca Marmo, Luca Montanarella, Claudia Olazábal, Jan-Erik Petersen, Vit Penizek, Thomas Strassburger, Gergely Tóth, Miet Van Den Eeckhaut, Marc Van Liedekerke, Frank Verheijen, Eva Viestova, Yusuf Yigini 2012 – 76 pp. – EUR 25186 EN– Scientific and Technical Research series. Download report: (Size: 4 MB) Last Update: 13/02/2012

Monitoring, Reporting and Verification systems for Carbon in Soils and Vegetation in African, Caribbean and Pacific countries
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports

Monitoring, Reporting and Verification systems for Carbon in Soils and Vegetation in African, Caribbean and Pacific countries Improved terrestrial carbon management offers tremendous potential for climate change mitigation and, in many cases, there are associated co-benefits such as increased productivity, resilience, and biodiversity. In January 2011, the Institute for Environment and Sustainability of the Joint Research Centre organized an inter-service meeting on “Monitoring, Reporting and Verification systems for carbon in soils and vegetation in African, Caribbean and Pacific countries” with the objective of refining its long-term research agenda in that domain. This was achieved in the light of the needs of the Directorates-General involved in the development and environment policies namely DEVCO, ENV, CLIMA, ENTR, RTD and AGRI as well as of the recent evolution of the UNFCCC negotiations. This report encompasses the proceedings of the meeting together with the conclusions and recommendations to JRC work program stated by the invited experts and policy-makers from the different relevant DGs. Editors: Delphine de Brogniez, Philippe Mayaux, Luca Montanarella, 2011 – 99 pp. – EUR 24932 EN– Scientific and Technical Research series – ISSN 1831-9424, ISBN 978-92-79-21137-9, Doi 10.2788/63356 Download report: (Size: 3 MB) Preview FrontPage : Last Update: 10/10/2011

Satellite remote sensing for soil mapping in Africa: An overview
Resource Type: Publications in Journals, Documents, Maps & Documents

Satellite remote sensing for soil mapping in Africa: An overview Dewitte O., Jones A., Elbelrhiti H., Horion S., Montanarella L. Satellite remote sensing for soil mapping in Africa: An overview (2012) Progress in Physical Geography, 36 (4) , pp. 514-538. The protection and the sustainable management of soil resources in Africa are of paramount importance, particularly in the context of the uncertain impact of climate change and the increase pressure of the human activities. This situation requires a demand for up-to-date and relevant soil information at regional and continental scales. To provide timely and reliable information on soils at these scales, low-resolution spaceborne remote sensing offers an ideal support. Through a review of multispectral, thermal infrared, passive and active microwave imaging we show that sensors help in the delineation of soils themselves, as well as in the assessment of some of their key properties and threats such as water and wind erosion, landsliding and salinisation. However remote sensing imagery for mapping soil can be problematic if applied alone and often requires the use of ancillary data and field observations. Remote sensing is shown as being complementary to digital soil mapping. Access the paper: http://ppg.sagepub.com/content/36/4/514.abstract Last Update: 02/09/2013

Land Quality and Land Use Information - in the European Union
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports

Land Quality and Land Use Information - in the European Union This monograph contains a selection of scientific papers presented on the conference on Land Quality and Land Use Information in the European Union, hold in Keszthely, Hungary. It covers topics related to various aspects of land quality including: concepts of assessment; evaluation of biomass productivity; bioindicators of land quality; quality assessment of degraded land; land use related data processing; INSPIRE; and the economic aspects of land quality. The aim of the conference was to facilitate the exchange of information and views among stakeholders involved in land management, land resources research and land use policy planning. This exchange of information contributes to an enhanced understanding on the role of land quality in rural systems and to progress the development of land information, land registries, land use planning and related services based on land quality on different levels; from farm to continental scales in Europe. Editors: Gergely Tóth and Tamás Németh, 2011 – 399 pp. – EUR 24590 EN– Scientific and Technical Research series – ISSN 1831-9424, ISBN 978-92-79-17601-2, Doi 10.2788/40725 Download report: (Size: 8 MB) Preview FrontPage : Last Update: 06/09/2011

Spatial and temporal variability of rainfall erosivity factor for Switzerland
Resource Type: Publications in Journals, Documents, Maps & Documents

Spatial and temporal variability of rainfall erosivity factor for Switzerland Meusburger, K., Steel, A., Panagos, P., Montanarella, L., Alewell, C. (2012) Spatial and temporal variability of rainfall erosivity factor for Switzerland. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 16, 167–177, 2012 Rainfall erosivity, considering rainfall amount and intensity, is an important parameter for soil erosion risk assessment under future land use and climate change. Despite its importance, rainfall erosivity is usually implemented in models with a low spatial and temporal resolution. The purpose of this study is to assess the temporal- and spatial distribution of rainfall erosivity in form of the (Revised) Universal Soil Loss Equation R-factor for Switzerland. Time series of 22 yr for rainfall (10 min resolution) and temperature (1 h resolution) data were analysed for 71 automatic gauging stations distributed throughout Switzerland. Regression-kriging was used to interpolate the rainfall erosivity values of single stations and to generate a map for Switzerland. Latitude, longitude, average annual precipitation, biogeographic units (Jura, Midland, etc.), aspect and elevation were used as covariates, of which average annual precipitation, elevation and the biographic unit (Western Central Alps) were significant predictors. The mean value of long-term rainfall erosivity is 1330 MJmmha-1 h-1 yr-1 with a range of lowest values of 124 MJmmha-1 h-1 yr-1 at an elevated station in Grisons to highest values of 5611 MJmmha-1 h-1 yr-1 in Ticino. All stations have highest erosivity values from July to August and lowest values in the winter months. Swisswide the month May to October show significantly increasing trends of rainfall erosivity for the observed period . Only in February a significantly decreasing trend of rainfall erosivity is found. The increasing trends of rainfall erosivity in May, September and October when vegetation cover is scarce are likely to enhance soil erosion risk for certain agricultural crops and alpine grasslands in Switzerland. Access the paper: http://www.hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net/16/167/2012/hess-16-167-2012.html Last Update: 02/09/2013

Water retention of salt affected soils: quantitative estimation using soil survey information
Resource Type: Publications in Journals, Documents, Maps & Documents

Water retention of salt affected soils: quantitative estimation using soil survey information Toth B., Mako A., Guadagnini A., Toth G.Water retention of salt-affected soils: Quantitative estimation using soil survey information (2012) Arid Land Research and Management, 26 (2) , pp. 103-121. Soil water retention (SWR) at -0.1, -33, -1500 and -150000 kPa matric potentials and available water content (AWC) were estimated from information available from 729 horizons of salt-affected soils in the Hungarian Detailed Soil Hydrophysical Database. Soil characteristics of the 1:10,000 scale Hungarian soil maps were used as input parameters. Ordinal and nominal (categorical) variables: texture, organic matter content, calcium carbonate content, soluble salt content, pH and soil subtype classes of the soil map were used to develop a new prediction method based on the CHAID classification tree. Results of the model development were compared with results using conventional prediction methods (CRT – classification tree and multiple linear regression). Four types of pedotransfer rules were established by classification tree methods. The first rule uses contiuous-type input parameters, the second uses soil taxonomical information in addition, the third and fourth one uses categorical-type input parameters. In addition, continuous pedotransfer functions (point estimations) were established as well. Results show that the root mean square error (RMSE) of the pedotransfer rules based on categorical-type soil information is between 1.25 vol% (at -150000 kPa) and 6.40 vol% (-33 kPa). Model performance of pedotransfer rules and pedotransfer functions was not significantly different, meaning that with the mentioned available input parameters, for salt-affected soils the prediction accuracy is similar with categorical and continuous-type information. The established methods can be readily used to prepare available water content maps for the topsoil of salt affected soils based on solely soil survey information. Access the paper: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15324982.2012.657025 Last Update: 02/09/2013

Chemical elements in Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes (The reference mushrooms as instruments for investigating bioindication and biodiversity)
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports

Chemical elements in Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes (The reference mushrooms as instruments for investigating bioindication and biodiversity) Fungi in the wild are among the principal agents in biogeochemical cycles; those cycles of matter and energy which enable ecosystems to work. By investigating the biodiversity of Italian fungal species and concentration levels of chemical elements in them, it may be possible to employ these fungi as biological indicators for the quality of forest, woodland and semi-natural environments. The data archives of EUR Reports record the dry-material concentrations, of 35 chemical elements, including heavy metals, in over 9000 samples of higher mushrooms. These samples represent around 200 genera and a thousand species. As the archive has attained statistical stability it has been possible to define the concept of a "reference mushroom". The use of a "reference mushroom" may bring benefits – perhaps only as a methodological approach – in various fields of mycological and environmental research; from biodiversity and bioindication, through taxonomy right up to health and sanitation issues. The sheer volume of the collected data may prove to be useful as a comparison for data collected in the future; such results would also allow a better and more-exhaustive interpretation of the effects of environmental-protection laws which have been enacted over the years in order to reduce or remedy current climate-change phenomena and the environmental damage caused by human activity. Editors:R. M. Cenci and F. Sena, 2011 – 232 pp. – EUR 24415 EN– Scientific and Technical Research series – ISSN 1018-5593, ISBN 978-92-79-20395-4, Doi 10.2788/22228 Download report: (Size: 28.5 MB) Preview FrontPage : Last Update: 06/09/2011

Soil Protection Activities and Soil Quality Monitoring in South Eastern Europe
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports

Soil Protection Activities and Soil Quality Monitoring in South Eastern Europe Conference papers, June 18th and 19th, 2009, Sarajevo - Bosnia and Herzegovina. The conference Soil Protection Activities and Soil Quality Monitoring in South Eastern Europe was organized in Sarajevo as a joint action by the Soil Science Society of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Soil Science Society of Slovenia. The main objectives of conference were to review the soil protection and soil quality monitoring activities in SEE including research activities, project reports, good practice guides and various methodologies and monitoring strategies. The special emphasis was laid on the ecological and technical soil functions, remediation and re-cultivation measures, data collection and processing, soil protection policy, soil quality and soil resources management issues on the regional level. The conference was an opportunity to key regional soil science research institutions to present activities and achievements with further prospects of cross - border scientific collaboration. This publication presents a selection of 20 conference papers prepared by the authors from SEE countries (Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia) and guest contributions from Austria, Slovenia and Syria. Editors:Panos Panagos, Vernik Tomaž, Hamid Custovic, Borut Vršcaj, 2011 – 208 pp. – EUR 24889 EN– Scientific and Technical Research series – ISSN 1831-9424, ISBN 978-92-79-20728-0, Doi 10.2788/36675 Download report: (Size: 10.5 MB) Preview FrontPage : Last Update: 27/07/2011

State of the art of national landslide databases in Europe and their potential for assessing landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk
Resource Type: Publications in Journals, Documents, Maps & Documents

State of the art of national landslide databases in Europe and their potential for assessing landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk Van Den Eeckhaut M., Hervas J.State of the art of national landslide databases in Europe and their potential for assessing landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk (2012) Geomorphology, 139-140 , pp. 545-558. A landslide inventory is the most important information source for quantitative zoning of landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk. It should give insight into the location, date, type, size, activity and causal factors of landslides as well as resultant damage. In Europe, many countries have created or are creating national and/or regional landslide databases (LDBs). Yet little is known on their contents, completeness, format, structure, language use and accessibility, and hence on their ability to perform national or transnational landslide zoning. Therefore, this study presents a detailed analysis of existing national LDBs in the EU member states, EU official candidate and potential candidate countries, and EFTA countries, and their possible use for landslide zoning. These national LDBs were compared with a subset of 22 regional databases. Twenty-two out of 37 contacted European countries currently have national LDBs, and six other countries have only regional LDBs. In total, the national LDBs contain 633,696 landslides, of which 485,004 are located in Italy, while Austria, the Czech Republic, France, Norway, Poland, Slovakia, and the UK also have >10,000 landslides in their LDBs. National LDBs are generally created in the official language of each country and 58% of them contain other natural hazards (e.g. floods and sinkholes). Access the paper: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169555X11006192 Last Update: 02/09/2013

Soil erodibility estimation using LUCAS point survey data of Europe
Resource Type: Publications in Journals, Documents, Maps & Documents

Soil erodibility estimation using LUCAS point survey data of Europe Panagos, P., Meusburger, K., Alewell, C., Montanarella, L. (2012) Soil erodibility estimation using LUCAS point survey data of Europe, Environmental Modelling & Software, Volume 30, April 2012, Pages 143-145, doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2011.11.002 Modelling soil erosion is mostly hampered by low data availability, particularly of soil parameters. One key parameter for soil erosion modelling is the soil erodibility, expressed as the K- factor in the commonly used soil erosion model USLE (Universal Soil Loss Equation). The K-factor is related to crucial soil factors triggering erosion (organic matter content, soil texture, soil structure, permeability). We calculated soil erodibility using measured soil data, collected during the 2009 LUCAS (Land Use and Cover Area frame Survey) soil survey campaign across the member states of the European Union. The proposed dataset overcomes the problems of limited data availability for K-factor assessment and proposes a high quality dataset to modellers who aim at soil erosion estimation on local/regional, national or European scale Access the paper: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364815211002465 Last Update: 02/09/2013

Report on the activities realized within the Service Level Agreement between JRC and EFSA
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports

Report on the activities realized within the Service Level Agreement between JRC and EFSA The activities realized in 2010 by JRC as support to the FATE and the ECOREGION EFSA PPR Working Groups are shortly described. For the FATE WG, the vast majority of data has been provided in 2009 during the first year of the Service Level Agreement (SLA), and in 2010 the daily weather data, for the six selected sites, were produced. All the data used for the scenario selection procedures, with additional data on land use-land cover, crop distribution, soil and climate parameters, will be made available for external user in first half of 2011. For the ECOREGION WG the analysis has been carried out for three Member States covering a North-South gradient from Finland, Germany to Portugal. Soil and weather data have been used for the characterisation of bio-geographic sampling sites, and for the implementation of the ecoregion model. Ecoregion maps were produced for earthworms and enchytraeids for Finland and Germany and revealed marked differences between the countries. The same approach has been applied also to Collembola and Isopoda, but for these two taxa led to a rather poor discrimination both between and within countries. Author(s):Ciro Gardi, Panos Panagos, Roland Hiederer, Luca Montanarella, Fabio Micale, 2011 – 38 pp. – EUR 24744 EN– Scientific and Technical Research series – ISSN 1018-5593, ISBN 978-92-79-19521-1, Doi 10.2788/61018 Download report: (Size: 4.5 MB) Preview FrontPage : Last Update: 29/03/2011

Evaluation of BioSoil Demonstration Project - Soil Data Analysis
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports

Evaluation of BioSoil Demonstration Project - Soil Data Analysis The BioSoil demonstration Project was initiated under the Forest Focus-Scheme (Regulation (EC) Nr. 2152/2003) concerning the monitoring of forests and environmental interactions in the Community, and aimed to broaden the scope of previous forest monitoring activities (on atmospheric pollution and forest fires) to the fields of soil characteristics and biodiversity indicators. The evaluation of the project concentrated on analysing a selected number of parameters submitted by NFCs for estimating the distribution and changes in soil organic carbon and the performance of the WRB classification. Author(s): R. Hiederer, E. Michéli, T. Durrant, 2011 – 155 pp. – EUR 24729 EN– Scientific and Technical Research series – ISSN 1018-5593, ISBN 978-92-79-19320-0, Doi 110.2788/56105 Download report: (Size: 3.5 MB) Preview FrontPage : Last Update: 11/02/2011

A quantitative review of the effects of biochar application to soils on crop productivity using meta-analysis
Resource Type: Publications in Journals, Documents, Maps & Documents

A quantitative review of the effects of biochar application to soils on crop productivity using meta-analysis S. Jeffery, F.G.A. Verheijen, M. van der Velde, A.C. Bastos (2011). A quantitative review of the effects of biochar application to soils on crop productivity using meta-analysis. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. Volume 144, Issue 1, November 2011, Pages 175–187 . Increased crop yield is a commonly reported benefit of adding biochar to soils. However, experimental results are variable and dependent on the experimental set-up, soil properties and conditions, while causative mechanisms are yet to be fully elucidated. A statistical meta-analysis was undertaken with the aim of evaluating the relationship between biochar and crop productivity (either yield or above-ground biomass). Results showed an overall small, but statistically significant, benefit of biochar application to soils on crop productivity, with a grand mean increase of 10%. However, the mean results for each analysis performed within the meta-analysis covered a wide range (from -28% to 39%). The greatest (positive) effects with regard to soil analyses were seen in acidic (14%) and neutral pH soils (13%), and in soils with a coarse (10%) or medium texture (13%). This suggests that two of the main mechanisms for yield increase may be a liming effect and an improved water holding capacity of the soil, along with improved crop nutrient availability. The greatest positive result was seen in biochar applications at a rate of 100 t ha-1 (39%). Of the biochar feedstocks considered and in relation to crop productivity, poultry litter showed the strongest (significant) positive effect (28%), in contrast to biosolids, which were the only feedstock showing a statistically significant negative effect (-28%). Access the paper: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167880911003197 Last Update: 05/09/2012

Carbon in European soils
Resource Type: Publications in Journals, Documents, Maps & Documents

Carbon in European soils Rainer Baritz, Dietmar Zirlewagen, Robert Jones, Dominique Arrouays, Roland Hiederer, Marion Schrumpf and Winfried Riek. Carbon in European soils (2011) pp. 49-84 in Book: "Soil Carbon in Sensitive European Ecosystems: From Science to Land Management" (Edited by R. Jandl, M. Rodeghiero, M. Olsson) Soil Carbon in Sensitive European Ecosystems is a comprehensive overview of the latest research in this field drawn together by a network of scientists, currently working for the European research programme, COST Action 639 BurnOut(www.cost639.net; 2006-2010). COST Action 639 emerged from a demand from policy makers in Europe for more detailed information on soil carbon dynamics. The cooperation between experts for reporting and experts for soil dynamics is the focus of the book. This book seeks to provide an up-to-date account on the state-of-the-art research within this topical field. This book focuses primarily on ecosystems and their soil carbon stocks. The book identifies three key sensitive ecosystems within Europe: Mediterranean Forest and Agricultural Systems; Mountains; and Peatland. Access the paper: http://eu.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-1119970016.html Last Update: 05/09/2012

Background Guide for the Calculation of Land Carbon Stocks in the Biofuels Sustainability Scheme: Drawing on the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports

Background Guide for the Calculation of Land Carbon Stocks in the Biofuels Sustainability Scheme: Drawing on the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories This Guide covers the calculation of carbon-stock changes in soil and above- and below-ground vegetation due to land use conversion in support of Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources, particularly for assessing carbon-stock changes due to land conversion for biofuel production. The methodology put forward is based on the Tier 1 approach as developed under the IPCC Guidelines 2006. It is based on specifying default values for carbon stocks and using coefficients of divergence from the default values according to land use/cover. The methodological approach of the IPCC was adapted for use with spatial layers instead of data tables. The spatial layers of the factors influencing carbon-stock changes were generated with global coverage and thematically aligned to comply with stipulations made in the Directive. According to the types of land use/cover conversion, a review is made of the methodology of the IPCC (2006). Particular problems regarding peatlands are presented. Drained peatlands cannot be assessed in terms of carbon-stock changes because drainage occurs on the overall peat soil profile (not only on the first 30 cm). This has direct consequences not only on CO2 emissions but also on CH4 and N2O. Tables of coefficients of conversions are then proposed according to climate zone and continental boundaries for soil carbon-stock changes and for above- and below-ground carbon stock changes in biomass in a Technical Annex. Author(s): Florence Carré, Roland Hiederer, Viorel Blujdea, Renate Koeble, 2010 – 109 pp. – EUR 24573 EN– Scientific and Technical Research series – ISSN 1018-5593, ISBN 978-92-79-17455-1, Doi 10.2788/34463 Download report: (Size: 2.5 MB) Preview FrontPage : Last Update: 12/11/2010

Biofuels: a New Methodology to Estimate GHG Emissions from Global Land Use Change - A methodology involving spatial allocation of agricultural land demand and estimation of CO2 and N2O emissions
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports

Biofuels: a New Methodology to Estimate GHG Emissions from Global Land Use Change - A methodology involving spatial allocation of agricultural land demand and estimation of CO2 and N2O emissions This study provides a new methodology developed by the JRC IES and IE for estimating changes in soil carbon stocks and GHG emissions resulting from global land use changes caused by the production of biofuels. The methodology follows a two-step approach: a) Creation of database (e.g. land use/crop cover/soil types etc.), combining different data sources into a single harmonised database; b) Simulation based on cropland demands from the general equilibrium model MIRAGE (run by IFPRI) and on cropland demand from the partial equilibrium model AGLINK-COSIMO Author(s): Roland Hiederer, Fabien Ramos, Claudia Capitani, Renate Koeble, Viorel Blujdea, Oscar Gomez, Declan Mulligan and Luisa Marelli, 2010 – 150 pp. – EUR 24483 EN– Scientific and Technical Research series – ISSN 1018-5593, ISBN 978-92-79-16389-0, DOI 10.2788/48910 Download report: (Size: 2 MB) Preview FrontPage : Last Update: 12/11/2010

Soil loss rates due to piping erosion
Resource Type: Publications in Journals, Documents, Maps & Documents

Soil loss rates due to piping erosion E. Verachtert, W. Maetens, M. Van Den Eeckhaut, J. Poesen, J. Deckers. Soil loss rates due to piping erosions (2011), EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Vol 36, No 13, pp 1715-1725 Compared with surface soil erosion by water, subsurface erosion (piping) is generally less studied and harder to quantify. However, wherever piping occurs, it is often a significant or even the main sediment source. In this study, the significance of soil loss due to piping is demonstrated through an estimation of soil volume lost from pipes and pipe collapses (n=560) in 137 parcels under pasture on loess-derived soils in a temperate humid climate (Belgium). Assuming a period of 5 to 10years for pipe collapse to occur, mean soil loss rates of 2.3 and 4.6t ha-1 yr-1 are obtained, which are at least one order of magnitude higher than surface erosion rates (0.01-0.29t ha-1 yr-1) by sheet and rill erosion under a similar land use. The results obtained for the study area in the Flemish Ardennes correspond well to other measurements in temperate environments; they are, however, considerably smaller than soil loss rates due to subsurface erosion in semi-arid environments. Although local slope gradient and drainage area largely control the location of collapsed pipes in the study area, these topographic parameters do not explain differences in eroded volumes by piping. Hence, incorporation of subsurface erosion in erosion models is not straightforward. Access the paper: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/esp.2186/abstract Last Update: 05/09/2012

Equilibrium versus disequilibrium of barchan dunes
Resource Type: Publications in Journals, Documents, Maps & Documents

Equilibrium versus disequilibrium of barchan dunes Hicham El belrhiti, Stéphane Douady . Equilibrium versus disequilibrium of barchan dunes (2011),GEOMORPHOLOGY , Vol 125, Mo 4 , pp. 558-568 Barchans are crescent dunes which take place in mainly mono-directional winds. Shape, aspect ratios and velocities of these dunes had been studied as if they were in equilibrium, in a stable state. However, following the shape and migrations of 11 barchans of different sizes for 18 months in the field on Moroccan Atlantic Sahara show that they are appear to be in a stationary state only if studied over a long period (at the scale of the year or several years), but are never at equilibrium at the scale of the week or the month. They are rather always trying to reach a possible equilibrium state but never have enough time to reach it. This could be the main reason for the large dispersion observed in previous measurements, and should lead to a caution on what can be deduced from them. Access the paper: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169555X10004630 Last Update: 05/09/2012

Guidelines for Mapping Areas at Risk of Landslides in Europe
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports

Guidelines for Mapping Areas at Risk of Landslides in Europe This volume presents the results of a meeting of European experts held at the JRC, Ispra, Italy on 23-24 October 2007. The publication includes examples of landslide inventories and susceptibility, hazard and risk mapping in France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Italy and Spain, and discusses some harmonisation issues and criteria for mapping landslide susceptibility across Europe. It concludes with recommendations on a common methodology for landslide susceptibility mapping in Europe based on geographically-nested “Tier” approaches at various scales, from Europe-wide scale to regional and local scales. Hervás, J. (Ed.), 2007. Guidelines for Mapping Areas at Risk of Landslides in Europe. Proc. Experts Meeting, JRC, Ispra, Italy, 23-24 October 2007. JRC Report EUR 23093 EN, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 53 pp. Download report: (Size: 28.5 MB) Preview FrontPage : Last Update: 11/10/2010

Implementazione a livello regionale della proposta di Direttiva quadro sui suoli in Europa
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports

Implementazione a livello regionale della proposta di Direttiva quadro sui suoli in Europa This report provides an example of the implementation of the proposal of the Soil Framework Directive at regional scale. The authors analysed the complex process as defined in the proposal for the Soil Framework Directive (COM (2006) 232) from the European Commission to the Council and European Parliament. Furthermore the implementation scheme of the proposed Directive has been followed from the definition of the soil erosion risk assessment to the reporting activity to the European Commission. In addition, an overview of the actual policy framework for the soil protection measures is given. The authors underline some crucial steps in the implementation of the Directive with particular attention to the common criteria and the need for soil monitoring data for the reporting activity to European Commission. Author(s): Ezio Rusco, Luca Montanarella, Mauro Tiberi, Leonardo Rossini, Paolo Ricci, Giovanni Ciabocco, Alessandra Budini, Cristina Bernacconi, EUR 22953 IT – Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities 2007 – 61 pp. Scientific and Technical Research series – ISSN 1018-5593. Download report: (Size: 6.5 MB) Preview FrontPage : Last Update: 11/10/2010

European digital archive on soil maps (EuDASM): preserving important soil data for public free access
Resource Type: Publications in Journals, Documents, Maps & Documents

European digital archive on soil maps (EuDASM): preserving important soil data for public free access Panos Panagos, Arwyn Jones, Claudio Bosco & P.S. Senthil Kumar. European digital archive on soil maps (EuDASM): preserving important soil data for public free access (2011), INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DIGITAL EARTH , Vol 4, No 5, pp. 434-443. Historical soil survey paper maps are valuable resources that underpin strategies to support soil protection and promote sustainable land use practices, especially in developing countries where digital soil information is often missing. However, many of the soil maps, in particular those for developing countries, are held in traditional archives that are not easily accessible to potential users. Additionally, many of these documents are over 50 years old and are beginning to deteriorate. Realising the need to conserve this information, the Joint Research Centre (JRC) and the ISRIC-World Soil Information foundation have created the European Digital Archive of Soil Maps (EuDASM), through which all archived paper maps of ISRIC has been made accessible to the public through the Internet. The immediate objective is to transfer paper-based soil maps into a digital format with the maximum possible resolution and to ensure their preservation and easy disclosure. More than 6,000 maps from 135 countries have been captured and are freely available to users through a user-friendly web-based interface. Initial feedback has been very positive, especially from users in Africa, South America and Asia to whom archived soil maps were made available to local users, often for the first time. Access the paper: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17538947.2011.596580 Last Update: 05/09/2012