Update: 07/2003
Important Note by Marc Van Liedekerke (01/02/08): This version of the Database Manual is obsolete in relation to the most recent developments of the GISCO data. However, this version of the documentation still serves to explain the coordinate reference system used by a few datasets maintained in European Soil Portal; these datasets historically used the LAEA coordinate system explained under Chapter3.
A map is a graphic representation of geographical features or other spatial phenomena. Both location and attribute information of a particular object can be read from a map. The location information describes the position of the object on the earth's surface, while the attribute information describes characteristics of the features represented.
In addition to feature locations and their attributes, maps have other technical characteristics that define them and their use. These include scale, resolution, accuracy and projection.
The map scale is the extent of reduction necessary to display
a representation of the earth's surface on a map. It is often
expressed as a representative fraction of distance, such as
1:1 000 000. This means that 1 unit of distance on the map represents
1 million of the same units of distance on the earth.
Map resolution is the accuracy with which the location and shape of map features can be depicted for a given map scale. In addition to this, maps also contain accuracy constraints in the placement of lines and points on the map page.
A map projection is a mathematical transformation to calculate the position of a geographical feature from its position on the 3dimensional earth's surface to its position on a 2dimensional map surface.
The earth is almost a perfect sphere. The ellipticity is approximately 0.003353. To simplify mathematical calculations, the earth is often considered to be a sphere, with a certain radius. This assumption can be used for maps with a scale up to 1:5 000 000. At this scale, one cannot detect the difference between a sphere and a spheroid on a map. For larger scale maps, however, it is necessary to treat the earth as a spheroid (i.e. an ellipsoid which approximates to a sphere).
Because of gravitational variations and variations in surface features, the earth is not a perfect spheroid. Many surveys of the irregularities of the earth's surface have led to the definition of many spheroids. The semimajor and semiminor axes defining the spheroid that best fit one geographic region are not necessarily the same for another geographic region.
Spherical coordinates are measured in latitude and longitude. If the earth is considered to be a sphere, latitude and longitude are angles measured from the earth's centre to a point on the earth' surface. Latitude and longitude are measured in degrees, minutes and seconds. The equator has latitude 0°, the North Pole 90°, and the South Pole 90°. The Prime Meridian, indicating a longitude of 0°, starts at the North Pole, passes through Greenwich, England, and ends at the South Pole.
Although measurements of latitude and longitude can be used to locate the exact position of a feature on the earth's surface, these measurement units are not associated with a standard length. It is only along the Equator that the distance represented by one degree of longitude approximates the distance represented by one degree of latitude.
To obtain comparable measurement units on a map, a mathematical conversion is needed. This transformation is commonly referred to as a "map projection".
There are four basic properties to map projections: shape  area  distance  direction.
Any representation of the ellipsoid surface in a 2dimensional map causes distortion of one or more of these map properties. As different projections produce different distortions, they are suitable for some applications but not useful for others.
The GISCO locational reference system is the geographical coordinate system measured in latitude and longitude on a spheroid with a specific datum known as ETRS89. This system can be used to identify the locations of points anywhere on the earth's surface and is commonly refered to as the Geographical Reference System.
Longitude lines are also called meridians and stretch between the North and South poles, whereas latitude lines are also called parallels and encircle the globe with parallel rings.
The geodetic latitude (there are many other defined latitudes) of a point is the angle from the equatorial plane to the vertical direction of a line normal to the reference ellipsoid.
The geodetic longitude of a point is the angle between a reference plane and a plane passing through the point, both planes being perpendicular to the equatorial plane.
Latitude and longitude are commonly either measured in degrees, minutes and seconds or decimal degrees, the latter being the GISCO measurement unit. Latitude values range from 0° at the equator to +90° at the North Pole and 90° at the South Pole. Longitude ranges from 0° at the Prime Meridian (the meridian that passes through Greenwich, England) to 180° when traveling East from 0° and 180° when traveling West fom 0°.
Since longitude lines converge at the poles and converge towards the equator, one degree longitude varies between zero and 111 km at the equator. Therefore, degrees can not be associated with a standard length and furthermore, can not be used as an accurate measure of distance or area.
In order to provide measure of area and length, *.le for length and *.ar for area, info tables have been added to all layers with arc, polygon or region features. The measure is calculated on the basis of the Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area projection.
To demonstrate these tables, the example of the structural funds (SF) version 5 in the community support (cs) theme, will be used:
The SFEC1MV5 cover consists of the following features:
Feature Type  Table Name
 Associated Area or Length Table

arc  sfec1mv5.aat
 sfec1mv5.le

polygon  sfec1mv5.pat
 sfec1mv5.ar

region  sfec1mv5.patsfelcl
 sfec1mv5.arsfelcl etc.

The *.ar and *.le tables can be linked to their corresponding feature tables via the <TABLENAME>ID item. The corresponding relationships can be defined as follows:
Notably, an Arc coverage does not have a onetoone relationship with its *.le table. Since the convertion from Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area to Geographic Coordinates split some arcs, the relationship from the Arc coverage to the *.le table is oneormany to one.
The table below gives an overview of all data sets that are not projected in Geographic Coordinates and Spheroid ETRS89. Added are the reference systems they are projected in. In principle, grids are not projected as Geographic Coordinates, but as indicated in the table below. These projection systems are described in the chapters that follow.
Data Set  Projection  Spheroid 
alwdgg  None (geographical coordinates)  Clarke 1866 
deeu20m  Lambert Azimuth Equal Area  Semi major axis of
International 1909 
deeu3m  Lambert Azimuth Equal Area  Semi major axis of
International 1909 
fawd25mgg  None (geographical coordinates)  Clarke 1866 
lceugr  Lambert Azimuth Equal Area  Semi major axis of
International 1909 
wawdgg  None (geographical coordinates)  Clarke 1866 
The Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area projection is a planar projection, which means that map data are projected onto a flat surface. The aritmethic centre of the projection, or the point of tangency, is a single point specified by longitude and latitude that can be located anywhere. This projection preserves the area of individual polygons while simultaneously maintaining a true sense of direction from the centre and is best suited for individual land masses that are symmetrically proportioned.
This projection system used to be the standard reference system for the GISCO Database until the release of november 2002.
In order to convert coverages, in former projection systems (before 11/2002) of the GISCO Database, to ETRS89 a usertool has been developed.
This tool can be found as $GCAI/atool/arc/la2gc.aml.
Usage : la2gc < input coverage > (a path name can be specified)
The GISCO Lambert Azimuthal Equal area projection is characterised by the following parameters:
Units  meters 
Spheroid  sphere 
Parameters  
Radius of sphere of reference  6378388 
Longitude of centre of projection  09° 00' 00" 
Latitude of centre of projection  48° 00' 00" 
False easting  0.0 
False northing  0.0 
The French overseas areas (DOM: Départements Outre Mer) that are grids, are projected according to different parameters:
For the DOM areas, a Lambert Conformal projection is used, with
parameters matched to every region:
Réunion  Units  meters 
Spheroid  International 1909  
Parameters  
1st standard parallel  20° 0' 0.000"  
2nd standard parallel  22° 0' 0.000"  
central meridian  55° 30' 0.000"  
latitude of projection's origin  21° 0' 0.000"  
Guyane  Units  meters 
Spheroid  International 1909  
Parameters  
1st standard parallel  2° 0' 0.000"  
2nd standard parallel  6° 0' 0.000"  
central meridian  53° 0' 0.000"  
latitude of projection's origin  4° 0' 0.000"  
Martinique  Units  meters 
Spheroid  International 1909  
Parameters  
1st standard parallel  14° 0' 0.000"  
2nd standard parallel  15° 0' 0.000"  
central meridian  61° 0' 0.000"  
latitude of projection's origin  14° 30' 0.000"  
Guadeloupe  Units  meters 
Spheroid  International 1909  
Parameters  
1st standard parallel  16° 0' 0.000"  
2nd standard parallel  16° 30' 0.000"  
central meridian  61° 30' 0.000"  
latitude of projection's origin  16° 15' 0.000" 
In December 1999 in a workshop, organised by JRC and MEGRIN, the need of a common Spatial Reference System for Europe was discussed as first step to ensure that geographic data are compatible across Europe. The workshop recommended to adopt the European Spatial Reference System ETRS89 at European level. But, a European Spatial Reference System is not enough, there is a need for a set of projection systems for the cartographic representation and grid storage of PanEuropean geographic data at different levels of precision. To discuss this subject the JRC and EuroGeographics organised a second workshop (Dec. 14th  15th 2000, MarnelaVallée) with a panel of relevant experts, with the main objective being to analyse the European Commission primary needs for map projection(s) and obtains expert advice to determine the appropriate projections.
Projected data are used in different contexts and for different uses:
The Workshop noted the need for a PanEuropean coordinate reference system in which area remains true (for many statistical purposes) and which also maintains angles and shapes (for purposes such as topographic mapping). These needs cannot be met through usage of the ETRS89 ellipsoidal coordinate reference system alone, and a map projection is required to supplement the ellipsoidal system. The Workshop recognised that mapping of the ellipsoid cannot be achieved without distortion, and that it is impossible to satisfy the maintenance of area, direction and shape through a single projection.
For the purposes of evaluating projection distortion, the area of interest was taken to be a primary area equating to the EU15 except for outlying islands in the Atlantic (Madeira, Canaries, etc) ("EU15"), and a secondary area covering the current EU15 including Atlantic islands plus the EFTA countries and the 13 current EU candidate countries ("EU15+EFTA+CEC13"). In addition, the secondary area was extended eastwards to the Ural Mountains "Geographic Europe".
The primary area is bounded by parallels of 71°N and 34°N and meridians of 11°W and 32°E whilst the secondary area is bounded by parallels of 82°N and 27°N and meridians of 32°W and 45°E. The eastern boundary of the secondary area extension is 70°E. The centre of the area of interest was taken to be 52°N, 10°E.
Figure 1: The Area of Interest
At the COGI meeting in May 2001, all participants agreed that the coordinate reference system ETRS89 should be adopted by all Commission services using GIS or collecting georeferenced data. This agreement was affirmed by a formal decision of the European Commission to use ETRS89 for expressing geographical locations. 
The European Terrestrial Reference System 1989 (ETRS89) is the geodetic datum for PanEuropean spatial data collection, storage and analysis. This is based on the GRS80 ellipsoid and is the basis for a coordinate reference system using ellipsoidal coordinates. The ETRS89 Ellipsoidal Coordinate Reference System (ETRS89) is recommended to express and to store positions, as far as possible.
Table 1: ETRS89 Ellipsoidal Coordinate Reference System Description
Entity  Value 
CRS ID  ETRS89 
CRS alias  ETRS89 Ellipsoidal CRS 
CRS valid area  Europe 
CRS scope  Geodesy, Cartography, Geoinformation systems, Mapping 
Datum ID  ETRS89 
Datum alias  European Terrestrial Reference System 1989 
Datum type  geodetic 
Datum realization epoch  1989 
Datum valid area  Europe / EUREF 
Datum scope  European datum consistent with ITRS at the epoch 1989.0 and fixed to the stable part of the Eurasian continental plate for georeferencing of GIS and geokinematic tasks 
Datum remarks  see Boucher, C., Altamimi, Z. (1992): The EUREF Terrestrial Reference System and its First Realizations. Veröffentlichungen der Bayerischen Kommission für die Internationale Erdmessung, Heft 52, München 1992, pages 205213 or ftp://lareg.ensg.ign.fr/pub/euref/info/guidelines/ 
Prime meridian ID  Greenwich 
Prime meridian Greenwich longitude  0° 
Ellipsoid ID  GRS 80 
Ellipsoid alias  New International 
Ellipsoid semimajor axis  6 378 137 m 
Ellipsoid shape  TRUE 
Ellipsoid inverse flattening  298.2572221 
Ellipsoid remarks  see Moritz, H. (1988): Geodetic Reference System 1980. Bulletin Geodesique, The Geodesists Handbook, 1988, Internat. Union of Geodesy and Geophysics 
Coordinate system ID  Ellipsoidal Coordinate System 
Coordinate system type  geodetic 
Coordinate system dimension  3 
Coordinate system axis name  geodetic latitude 
Coordinate system axis direction  North 
Coordinate system axis unit identifier  degree 
Coordinate system axis name  geodetic longitude 
Coordinate system axis direction  East 
Coordinate system axis unit identifier  degree 
Coordinate system axis name  ellipsoidal height 
Coordinate system axis direction  up 
Coordinate system axis unit identifier  metre 
The coordinate lines of the Ellipsoidal Coordinate System are curvilinear lines on the surface of the ellipsoid. They are called parallels for constant latitude (phi) and meridians for constant longitude (lamda). When the ellipsoid is related to the shape of the Earth, the ellipsoidal coordinates are named geodetic coordinates. In some cases the term geographic coordinate system usually implies a geodetic coordinate system.
Figure 2: Cartesian Coordinates and Ellipsoidal Coordinates
If the origin of a righthanded Cartesian coordinate system coincides with the centre of the ellipsoid, the Cartesian Zaxis coincides with the axis of rotation of the ellipsoid and the positive Xaxis passes through the point "phi" = 0, "lamda" = 0.
The European Terrestrial Reference System 1989 (ETRS89) is the geodetic datum for PanEuropean spatial data collection, storage and analysis. This is based on the GRS80 ellipsoid and is the basis for a coordinate reference system using ellipsoidal coordinates. For many PanEuropean purposes a plane coordinate system is preferred. But the mapping of ellipsoidal coordinates to plane coordinates cannot be made without distortion in the plane coordinate system. Distortion can be controlled, but not avoided.
For many purposes the plane coordinate system should have minimum distortion of scale and direction. This can be achieved through a conformal map projection. The ETRS89 Transverse Mercator Coordinate Reference System (ETRSTMzn) is recommended for conformal PanEuropean mapping at scales larger than 1:500 000. For PanEuropean conformal mapping at scales smaller or equal 1:500 000 the ETRS89 Lambert Conformal Conic Coordinate Reference System (ETRSLCC) is recommended.
With conformal projection methods attributes such as area will not be free of distortion. For PanEuropean statistical mapping at all scales or for other purposes where true area representation is required, the ETRS89 Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Coordinate Reference System (ETRSLAEA) is recommended.
The ETRS89 Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Coordinate Reference System (ETRSLAEA) is a single projected coordinate reference system for all of the PanEuropean area. It is based on the ETRS89 geodetic datum and the GRS80 ellipsoid. Its defining parameters are given in Table 2 following ISO 19111 Spatial referencing by coordinates.
Table 2: ETRSLAEA Description
Entity  Value 
CRS ID  ETRSLAEA 
CRS alias  ETRS89 Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area CRS 
CRS valid area  Europe 
CRS scope  CRS for PanEuropean statistical mapping at all scales or other purposes where true area representation is required 
Datum ID  ETRS89 
Datum alias  European Terrestrial Reference System 1989 
Datum type  geodetic 
Datum realization epoch  1989 
Datum valid area  Europe / EUREF 
Datum scope  European datum consistent with ITRS at the epoch 1989.0 and fixed to the stable part of the Eurasian continental plate for georeferencing of GIS and geokinematic tasks 
Datum remarks  see Boucher, C., Altamimi, Z. (1992): The EUREF Terrestrial Reference System and its First Realizations. Veröffentlichungen der Bayerischen Kommission für die Internationale Erdmessung, Heft 52, München 1992, pages 205213  or ftp://lareg.ensg.ign.fr/pub/euref/info/guidelines 
Prime meridian ID  Greenwich 
Prime meridian Greenwich longitude  0° 
Ellipsoid ID  GRS 80 
Ellipsoid alias  New International 
Ellipsoid semimajor axis  6 378 137 m 
Ellipsoid shape  TRUE 
Ellipsoid inverse flattening  298.2572221 
Ellipsoid remarks  see Moritz, H. (1988): Geodetic Reference System 1980. Bulletin Geodesique, The Geodesists Handbook, 1988, Internat. Union of Geodesy and Geophysics 
Coordinate system ID  LAEA 
Coordinate system type  projected 
Coordinate system dimension  2 
Coordinate system axis name  Y 
Coordinate system axis direction  North 
Coordinate system axis unit identifier  metre 
Coordinate system axis name  X 
Coordinate system axis direction  East 
Coordinate system axis unit identifier  metre 
Operation ID  LAEA 
Operation valid area  Europe 
Operation scope  for PanEuropean statistical mapping at all scales or other purposes where true area representation is required 
Operation method name  Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection 
Operation method formula  US Geological Survey Professional Publication 1395, "Map Projection  A Working Manual" by John P. Snyder. 
Operation method parameters number  4 
Operation parameter name  latitude of origin 
Operation parameter value  52° N 
Operation parameter name  longitude of origin 
Operation parameter value  10° E 
Operation parameter remarks  
Operation parameter name  false northing 
Operation parameter value  3 210 000.0 m 
Operation parameter remarks  
Operation parameter name  false easting 
Operation parameter value  4 321 000.0 m 
Operation parameter remarks 
With these defining parameters, locations North of 25° have positive grid northing and locations eastwards of 30° West longitude have positive grid easting. Note that the axes abbreviations for ETRSLAEA are Y and X whilst for the ETRSLCC and ETRSTMnz they are N and E.
Caution
All EU projections are based on ETRS89 datum and therefore use ellipsoidal formulas. In some GIS applications the Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area method is implemented only in spherical form. Geodetic latitude and longitude must not be used in these spherical implementations. To do so may cause significant error (up to 15 km !). Use the example conversions above to test whether software uses appropriate formulas.
The European Terrestrial Reference System 1989 (ETRS89) is the geodetic datum for PanEuropean spatial data collection, storage and analysis. This is based on the GRS80 ellipsoid and is the basis for a coordinate reference system using ellipsoidal coordinates. For many PanEuropean purposes a plane coordinate system is preferred. But the mapping of ellipsoidal coordinates to plane coordinates cannot be made without distortion in the plane coordinate system. Distortion can be controlled, but not avoided. For many purposes the plane coordinate system should have minimum distortion of scale and direction. This can be achieved through a conformal map projection.
The ETRS89 Lambert Conformal Conic Coordinate Reference System (ETRSLCC) is recommended for conformal PanEuropean mapping at scales smaller or equal 1:500 000. For PanEuropean conformal mapping at scales larger than 1:500 000 the ETRS89 Transverse Mercator Coordinate Reference System (ETRSTMzn) is recommended.
With conformal projection methods attributes such as area will not be distortionfree. For PanEuropean statistical mapping at all scales or other purposes where true area representation is required, the ETRS89 Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Coordinate Reference System is recommended.
The ETRS89 Lambert Conformal Conic Coordinate Reference System (ETRSLCC) is a single projected coordinate reference system for all of the PanEuropean area applied to the ETRS89 geodetic datum and the GRS80 ellipsoid. Because of the greater extent in longitude than in latitude, a Lambert Conic Conformal projection with two standard parallels is utilised.
The scale factor is only a function of the latitudes of the standard parallels and the latitude of the point where it is computed. Figure 3 shows the variation of the scale factor k against latitude. The maximum and minimum values are shown in Table 3, also in parts per million (ppm).
Figure 3: Variation of the Scale Factor
Table 3: Maximum and Minimum Values of the Distortion
Extreme  Latitude  Scale factor k  Scale (ppm) 
minimum  51°N (circa)  0.965 622  34 378 
maximum  71° N  1.043 704  43 704 
Defining parameters are given in Table 4 following ISO 19111 Spatial referencing by coordinates.
Table 4: ETRSLCC Description
Entitiy  Value 
CRS ID  ETRSLCC 
CRS alias  ETRS89 Lambert Conformal Conic CRS 
CRS valid area  Europe 
CRS scope  CRS for conformal PanEuropean mapping at scales smaller or equal 1:500 000 
Datum ID  ETRS89 
Datum alias  European Terrestrial Reference System 1989 
Datum type  geodetic 
Datum realization epoch  1989 
Datum valid area  Europe / EUREF 
Datum scope  European datum consistent with ITRS at the epoch 1989.0 and fixed to the stable part of the Eurasian continental plate for georeferencing of GIS and geokinematic tasks 
Datum remarks  see Boucher, C., Altamimi, Z. (1992): The EUREF Terrestrial Reference System and its First Realizations. Veröffentlichungen der Bayerischen Kommission für die Internationale Erdmessung, Heft 52, München 1992, pages 205213 or ftp://lareg.ensg.ign.fr/pub/euref/info/guidelines/ 
Prime meridian ID  Greenwich 
Prime meridian Greenwich longitude  0° 
Ellipsoid ID  GRS 80 
Ellipsoid alias  New International 
Ellipsoid semimajor axis  6 378 137 m 
Ellipsoid shape  TRUE 
Ellipsoid inverse flattening  298.2572221 
Ellipsoid remarks  see Moritz, H. (1988): Geodetic Reference System 1980. Bulletin Geodesique, The Geodesists Handbook, 1988, Internat. Union of Geodesy and Geophysics 
Coordinate system ID  LCC 
Coordinate system type  projected 
Coordinate system dimension  2 
Coordinate system axis name  N 
Coordinate system axis direction  North 
Coordinate system axis unit identifier  metre 
Coordinate system axis name  E 
Coordinate system axis direction  East 
Coordinate system axis unit identifier  metre 
Operation ID  LCC 
Operation valid area  Europe 
Operation scope  for conformal PanEuropean mapping at scales smaller or equal 1 : 500 000 
Operation method name  Lambert Conformal Conic Projection with 2 standard parallels 
Operation method formula  Lambert Conformal Conic Projection, in Hooijberg, Practical Geodesy, 1997, pages 133139 
Operation method parameters number  6 
Operation parameter name  lower parallel 
Operation parameter value  35° N 
Operation parameter remarks  
Operation parameter name  upper parallel 
Operation parameter value  65° N 
Operation parameter remarks  
Operation parameter name  latitude grid origin 
Operation parameter value  52° N 
Operation parameter remarks  
Operation parameter name  longitude grid origin 
Operation parameter value  10° E 
Operation parameter remarks  
Operation parameter name  false northing 
Operation parameter value  2 800 000 m 
Operation parameter remarks  
Operation parameter name  false easting 
Operation parameter value  4 000 000 m 
Operation parameter remarks  
Note that the axes abbreviations for ETRSLCC and ETRSTMzn are N and E whilst for the ETRSLAEA they are Y and X.
The European Terrestrial Reference System 1989 (ETRS89) is the geodetic datum for PanEuropean spatial data collection, storage and analysis. This is based on the GRS80 ellipsoid and is the basis for a coordinate reference system using ellipsoidal coordinates. For many PanEuropean purposes a plane coordinate system is preferred. But the mapping of ellipsoidal coordinates to plane coordinates cannot be made without distortion in the plane coordinate system. Distortion can be controlled, but not avoided. For many purposes the plane coordinate system should have minimum distortion of scale and direction. This can be achieved through a conformal map projection.
The ETRS89 Transverse Mercator Coordinate Reference System (ETRSTMzn) is recommended for conformal PanEuropean mapping at scales larger than 1:500 000. For PanEuropean conformal mapping at scales smaller or equal 1:500 000 the ETRS89 Lambert Conformal Conic Coordinate Reference System (ETRSLCC) is recommended.
With conformal projection methods attributes such as area will not be distortionfree. For PanEuropean statistical mapping at all scales or other purposes where true area representation is required, the ETRS89 Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Coordinate Reference System is recommended.
The ETRS89 Transverse Mercator Coordinate Reference System (ETRSTMzn) is identical to the Universal Transverse Mercator grid system for the northern Hemisphere applied to the ETRS89 geodetic datum and the GRS80 ellipsoid. The UTM system was developed for worldwide application between 80°S and 84°N with the following basic features:
ETRSTMzn is a series of zones, where "zn" in the identifier is the zone number. Each zone runs from the equator northwards to latitude 84° North and is 6degrees wide in longitude reckoned from the Greenwich prime meridian. Zone 31 is centred on 3° East and is used between 0° and 6° East, zone 32 is centred on 9° East and is used between 6° and 12° East, etc. Table 5 shows the zones of the ETRSTMzn.
Table 5: Zones of ETRS89 Transverse Mercator Coordinate Reference System
Zone number  Longitude of Origin  West Limit  East Limit  South Limit  North Limit 
(zn)  (degrees)  (degrees)  (degrees)  (degrees)  (degrees) 
26  27° West  30° West  24° West  0° North  84° North 
27  21° West  24° West  18° West  0° North  84° North 
28  15° West  18° West  12° West  0° North  84° North 
29  9° West  12° West  6° West  0° North  84° North 
30  3° West  6° West  0° East  0° North  84° North 
31  3° East  0° East  6° East  0° North  84° North 
32  9° East  6° East  12° East  0° North  84° North 
33  15° East  12° East  18° East  0° North  84° North 
34  21° East  18° East  24° East  0° North  84° North 
35  27° East  24° East  30° East  0° North  84° North 
36  33° East  30° East  36° East  0° North  84° North 
37  39° East  36° East  42° East  0° North  84° North 
38  45° East  42° East  48° East  0° North  84° North 
39  51° East  48° East  54° East  0° North  84° North 
Figure 4: The ETRSTMzn Zones
Table 6 contains the fully described ETRS89 Transverse Mercator Coordinate Reference System (ETRSTMzn) following ISO 19111 Spatial referencing by coordinates.
Table 6: ETRSTMzn Description
Entity  Value 
CRS ID  ETRSTMzn 
CRS remarks  zn is the zone number, starting with 1 on the zone from 180° West to 174° West, increasing eastwards to 60 on the zone from 174° East to 180° East 
CRS alias  ETRS89 Transverse Mercator CRS 
CRS valid area  Europe 
CRS scope  CRS for conformal panEuropean mapping at scales larger than 1:500 000 
 
Datum ID  ETRS89 
Datum alias  European Terrestrial Reference System 1989 
Datum type  geodetic 
Datum realization epoch  1989 
Datum valid area  Europe / EUREF 
Datum scope  European datum consistent with ITRS at the epoch 1989.0 and fixed to the stable part of the Eurasian continental plate for georeferencing of GIS and geokinematic tasks 
Datum remarks  see Boucher, C., Altamimi, Z. (1992): The EUREF Terrestrial Reference System and its First Realizations. Veröffentlichungen der Bayerischen Kommission für die Internationale Erdmessung, Heft 52, München 1992, pages 205213  or ftp://lareg.ensg.ign.fr/pub/euref/info/guidelines/ 
 
Prime meridian ID  Greenwich 
Prime meridian Greenwich longitude  0° 
Ellipsoid ID  GRS 80 
Ellipsoid alias  New International 
Ellipsoid semimajor axis  6 378 137 m 
Ellipsoid shape  TRUE 
Ellipsoid inverse flattening  298.2572221 
Ellipsoid remarks  see Moritz, H. (1988): Geodetic Reference System 1980. Bulletin Geodesique, The Geodesists Handbook, 1988, Internat. Union of Geodesy and Geophysics 
Coordinate system ID  TMzn 
Coordinate system type  projected 
Coordinate system dimension  2 
Coordinate system remarks  Projection: Transverse Mercator in zones, 6° width 
Coordinate system axis name  N 
Coordinate system axis direction  North 
Coordinate system axis unit identifier  metre 
Coordinate system axis name  E 
Coordinate system axis direction  East 
Coordinate system axis unit identifier  metre 
Operation ID  TMzn 
Operation valid area  Europe 
Operation scope  for conformal panEuropean mapping at scales larger than 1:500 000 
Operation method name  Transverse Mercator Projection 
Operation method name alias  TMzn 
Operation method formula  Transverse Mercator Mapping Equations, in Hooijberg, Practical Geodesy, 1997, pages 8184, 111114 
Operation method parameters number  7 
Operation parameter name  latitude of origin 
Operation parameter value  0° 
Operation parameter remarks  0°, the Equator 
Operation parameter name  longitude of origin 
Operation parameter value  central meridian (CM) of each zone 
Operation parameter remarks  central meridians ...,3° W, 3° E, 9° E, 15° E, 21° E,... 
Operation parameter name  false northing 
Operation parameter value  0 m 
Operation parameter remarks  
Operation parameter name  false easting 
Operation parameter value  500 000 m 
Operation parameter remarks  
Operation parameter name  scale factor at central meridian 
Operation parameter value  0.9996 
Operation parameter remarks  
Operation parameter name  width of zones 
Operation parameter value  6° 
Operation parameter remarks  
Operation parameter name  latitude limits of system 
Operation parameter value  0° N and 84° N 
Operation parameter remarks  
Note that the axes abbreviations for ETRSTMzn and ETRSLCC are N and E whilst for the ETRSLAEA they are Y and X.